General Producer Guide - National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard
Annex J - Impact of Federal Disease Control and Response Measures - Producer Considerations for Premises Design and Procedures
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As mentioned in Annex C, the CFIA has developed disease control and response plans to address detections of federally reportable diseases. The measures applied differ, depending on the disease detected; however, the strategies are generally aimed at eradicating the disease, and restoring Canada's "disease-free" status as quickly as possible.
In most instances, where contagious diseases are detected on a site, the CFIA will declare the entire premises "infected", as per the Health of Animals Act. This allows control measures to be applied to all structures, equipment, animals, animal products and by-products etc. to prevent disease transmission off-site. The design of the site and procedures used can affect where and how control measures are applied.
Control measures often include the following:
- movement controls;
- surveillance (testing for disease);
- humane destruction of infected flocks;
- disposal of infected and contaminated carcasses, animal products and by-products, materials and other objects;
- cleaning and disinfection of the infected premises;
- compensation payments; and
- recovery procedures to allow restocking.
The CFIA will conduct epidemiological investigations, which include, but are not limited to, determining the source of infection, determining methods of transmission, and identifying locations where disease may have been transmitted (significant risk contacts).
Upon suspicion or detection of a federally reportable disease on a poultry premises, all areas of the premises, equipment, and materials used in raising, caring for or handling poultry, their products and by-products would be deemed "infected" by the CFIA. This includes barns, composting areas, manure storage, vehicles, equipment, etc. Producers should be aware that the locations of structures on their sites will affect control actions taken, as follows.
Location of flock housing
Housing areas (barns, open ranges) located in close proximity to each other on the same legal land description will often be treated under one CFIA declaration of an "infected premises"; disease identified in one housing area will result in disease control measures being applied to all housing areas on the site. Barns or housing areas located on a different premises that have shared equipment, staff, animals, or other potential carriers of disease would also be declared infected, and control measures would be applied.
If a producer can establish that a different but co-owned premises is epidemiologically distinct (with no cross utilization of staff or equipment, no link due to movement of animals, etc.), these sites would be monitored for disease. Reduced control actions may be applied to separate barns on an infected site if there is sufficient physical separation and they are epidemiologically distinct. Flocks which have significant value (breeder flocks, flocks with rare/unique genetics) should be located on a different premises from that of the main flock, and measures employed to ensure there are no epidemiological linkages between them.
Location of compost and manure
Compost and manure are considered as potentially contaminated with disease organisms. Access to areas where they are stored should be controlled. These areas should be located far enough from flock housing areas to eliminate the risk of disease introduction to the flock, and managed to prevent disease release. If central manure and compost sites are used - with the movement of all manure and litter from different barns and/or other sites to one location - the detection of disease in any barn or any site will result in control actions being applied to the central areas.
Note: This information is provided for information purposes only; disease response and control actions vary depending on the nature of the pathogenic agent, the course of an outbreak, and the geographic and demographic location of the outbreak.
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