Outbreak Investigation Report on Avian Influenza in British Columbia, 2014
2. National Avian Influenza Surveillance
2.1. Commercial Poultry
The Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (CanNAISS) is a joint initiative of government and industry that supports Canada's claim of freedom from NAI by providing ongoing surveillance of the commercial poultry population. The System is intended to prevent, detect and/or demonstrate the freedom from NAI in Canada's domestic poultry flocks. Designed to meet OIE guidelines, CanNAISS pertains specifically to high-pathogenic avian influenza and low-pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of NAI. During an outbreak of NAI, CanNAISS provides surveillance on premises and areas not part of the outbreak, complementing the CFIA's NAI Hazard Specific Plan (HSP) and supporting Canada's reporting to international organizations such as the OIE.
The CanNAISS includes:
- Detection of HPAI in domestic poultry through passive surveillance;
- Verification of the effectiveness of passive surveillance through active surveillance;
- Detection of LPAI circulating in domestic poultry through active surveillance; and
- Detection of NAI in post-outbreak surveillance.
2.2. Wild Birds
In 2005, Canada initiated an inter-agency annual survey for influenza A viruses in wild birds. These surveys (2005-2014) are used to assess the risk of exposure of AI virus from migrating wild birds to poultry. To date, no highly pathogenic H5 viruses have been detected.
The BCMAGRI Animal Health Centre (BCMAGRI-AHC) has tested dead wild birds from BC annually since 2006. The number of yearly submissions has ranged from 200-600 birds. In 2014, more than 300 dead wild birds were tested in BC, with no positive results for H5 or H7 avian influenza reported. In both 2006 and 2008, one dead bird out of the total annual collection (n=639 and n=386, respectively) tested positive for an H7 and H5 virus of low pathogenicity, respectively.
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