Import of used equipment and things from non-designated countries

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(that is, not free of diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease)


Notes: This document is a revision and combination of the following directives: AHPD-DSAE-IE-2001-11-6, APHD-DSAE-IE-2001-12-2, and APHD-DSAE-IE-2001-13-1; as well as the following memos:
Memo "Additional Procedures and Requirements for horses Imported into Canada from Countries with FMD"
Memo - "Additional Procedures and Requirements for Avians Imported into Canada from Countries with FMD".

This operational directive is divided into five sections, and includes four Appendices.

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly communicable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals of the order Artiodactyla. It affects cattle and swine, sheep, goats, deer, and other wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals, including those of the order Camelidae (except Camelus dromedarius)Footnote 1. Certain species of animals are capable of transmitting the disease, despite not showing clinical signs, either as subclinical "healthy" carriers or by acting as mechanical vectors. Specific examples of this are elephants, hedgehogs, and some rodents that are known to be susceptible to the virus but do not develop clinical signs of the disease.

The FMD virus can survive for long periods outside the host, depending on environmental conditions and the presence of organic material, thus making the inspection and treatment of materials and products, originating from countries not designated as free of FMD, of utmost importance.

"Some reports indicate that FMD virus has been recovered from cattle stalls 14 days after removal of infected cattle, from urine after 39 days, from soil after 28 days in autumn and after three days in summer, and from dry hay at 22°C after a 20-week storage period. Other reports indicate that FMD virus can survive one month in frozen bull semen, 50 days in water, 35 days on cardboard, wood, or metal contaminated with serum or blood."Footnote 2 And "The virus can travel 60 km downwind on land during an outbreak, and up to 200 km over water."Footnote 3

The effects of FMD introduction within Canada would be devastating economically, environmentally, and socially. The cost of the 2001 FMD outbreak in the UK was conservatively estimated in 2002 as £5.6 billion (pounds sterling).Footnote 4 This, in 2013 dollars, is roughly C$16.5 billion.Footnote 5

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has officially evaluated certain countries, which have been designated free of FMD. A list of these countries can be found at Countries Officially Recognized by Canada as Free of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). The FAO World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease provides, under ME Reports: 2010, some individual country reports and regions.

The following maps are derived from World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) statistics from 2004 and 2009–2012. These maps visually illustrate some of the areas that are not recognized by Canada as officially free of FMD virus.

Figure 1.Footnote 6 Picture taken from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Scientists develop rapid diagnostic test for foot-and-mouth and six other livestock diseases. Description follows.
Description of map - Scientists develop rapid diagnostic test for foot-and-mouth and six other livestock diseases

Brown indicates the countries that reported FMD occurrences in 2004, green shows those with no reported occurrences, and purple denotes those for which data are incomplete or unavailable (data from the OIE).

Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic , Chad, Colombia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Irak, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Palestinian Auton.Territories, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

For complete list of countries above as well those countries free from FMD, or either reporting no disease, or for which inadequate data was submitted to the OIE, see the OIE website from 2004

Figure 2. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) distribution by Serotype and the seven virus pools, 2010-2012 Footnote 7
Foot-and-mouth disease distribution by Serotype and the seven virus pools. Description follows.
Description of map - Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Situation

World Map of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) distribution by the seven serotypes (Serotype O, A, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3) and the seven virus pools from 2010 to 2012 primarily indicating reservoirs in Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Asia and South America.

Figure 3. Map of active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in 2011

Source OIE – Picture taken from here (accessed January 09, 2013)

Map of active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in 2011. Description follows.
Description of map - Active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in 2011

World Map of Countries reporting FMD in 2011 (July to ending in December) to OIE: by no information on the disease, Never Reported, Not reported in this period, suspected, clinical diseases, Disease limited to one or more zones, current disease event, present for other serotype. Primarily indicating reservoirs in Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia and South America.

For complete list of countries above as well those countries free from FMD, or either reporting no disease, or for which inadequate data was submitted to the OIE, via the OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratory Network Annual Report - PDF (2500 kb), starting on page 31, table 1.6.2. Details of serotyping and molecular detection results of samples collected and received in 2011.

Figure 4. Map of active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in July to December 2012

Source: OIE – Picture taken from here (accessed January 09, 2013)

Map of active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in July to December 2012. Description follows.
Description of map - Active outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the world in July to December 2012

World Map of Countries reporting FMD July to ending in December2012 to OIE: by no information on the disease, Never Reported, Not reported in this period, suspected, clinical diseases, Disease limited to one or more zones, current disease event, present for other serotype. Primarily indicating reservoirs in Africa and Asia.

For complete list of countries above as well those countries free from FMD, or either reporting no disease, or for which inadequate data was submitted to the OIE, see OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratory Network Annual Report 2012 - PDF (5100 kb), starting on page 57, for table 1.6.2. Details of Serotyping for samples received in 2012 by Network Laboratories.

CFIA Local Animal Health Offices (by province) should be contacted for further guidance on this operational directive.

The Fact Sheet – Foot and Mouth Disease may also be consulted for more information on this disease.

The procedures outlined within this operational directive, in addition to any procedures found in the plant protection operational directives listed within Appendix 1, must be adhered to for those products and things coming from countries not designated by the CFIA as free of FMD. The plant protection operational directives also apply to some items from certain other countries, including the U.S.

For the appropriate handling of animal waste, residual animal food, and bedding (which cannot be safely cleaned and disinfected, such as paper for lining crates) removed from aircraft and ships, as well as items that are confiscated from, or voluntarily surrendered by international travellers, that do not meet CFIA import conditions, refer to the operational directive on handling International Waste Directive (TAHD-DSAT-IE-2002-17-6), under which disposal of these products falls.


The Health of Animals Act, sections 14, 16 to 18 and the Health of Animals Regulations authorize the CFIA and Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) to restrict the importation of live animals, animal products, animal by-products or things that are, or may be, contaminated by a disease or toxic substance.

In Canada, FMD is a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Regulations, and all suspected cases must be reported to the CFIA.

Specific plant protection legislation with respect to prevention of entry into Canada of soil can be found within the Plant Protection Act and related Regulations.


Agricultural products: within this operational directive, a) an animal, a plant, or an animal or plant product; b) a product, including any food or drink, wholly or partly derived from an animal or a plant; or c) a product prescribed for the purposes of the Canada Agricultural Products Act and not defined elsewhere by the specific commodity type such as meat or dairy.

Approved cleaning and disinfection (C&D) station : within this operational directive, any place approved by the Minister for the cleaning, disinfection, or treatment of any conveyance or vehicle or other thing.

Area emergency response team (AERT) : the CFIA team at the Area Emergency Operation Centre, and includes the following functions: outbreak management, communications, stakeholder liaison, human resources support, diagnostics, tracing, movement control, vaccination, evaluation, depopulation, disposal, cleaning and disinfection, epidemiology, etc.

Clean : free from dirt or contaminating matter, unsoiled.Footnote 8

Cloven-hoofed animal : an animal (e.g. sheep, goats, cows, pigs, deer, camels) with hooves that are divided into two parts (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Cloven-hoofed animal Footnote 9
Cloven-hoofed animal

Complete tarping: complete coverage of the item, vehicle, or thing with a tarp so that no organic material, soil or dirt may inadvertently drop off or otherwise be dislodged during transport to an approved cleaning and disinfection (C&D) site.

Contaminating matter: includes blood, urine, feces, other animal secretions, dirt, soil, or parasites.

Designated country or zone: a country or zone determined by the CFIA to be free of reportable and immediately notifiable diseases that either affect or are transmitted by the species of origin of the animal, animal product, or by-product to be imported into Canada. Note that the recognition of disease freedom by the CFIA is not solely dependent on OIE status or country self-determination. The CFIA utilizes risk assessment methodology to determine whether a hazard is present in a country and to evaluate the risk of transmission of that hazard, resulting from the importation of animals, animal products, or by-products.

The list Reportable Diseases and Immediately Notifiable and Annually Notifiable diseases in Canada may be found on the CFIA website.

Disinfectant: a chemical product used to destroy a disease agent outside of the body of a living animal.Footnote 10

Disinfection: the application, after thorough cleansing, of procedures intended to destroy the infectious or parasitic agents of animal diseases, including zoonoses; applies to premises, vehicles, and any object that may have been directly or indirectly contaminated by an infectious or parasitic agent.Footnote 11

Fomite: a term used to include all things that have been in contact with an infected animal or infective material, so as to retain some of the infectious agent, and can serve as a source of infection.

Settlers' (personal) effects: shipments of goods or equipment imported from other countries that are the personal belongings and goods of individuals who are relocating to Canada, including diplomatic postings or Canadian citizens returning after an extended absence from the country. These may include furniture, household items, clothing, footwear, and personal effects that are transferred to Canada in a move or relocation. Agricultural vehicles and equipment may be included in these shipments, but should be handled under the used vehicles and equipment section of this operational directive.

Tarpaulin (tarp): a heavy-duty waterproof cloth, especially of tarred canvas; a sheet or covering of this.Footnote 12

Vector (mechanical or biological): an animal (frequently an insect) that has the potential to transmit a disease, directly or indirectly, from one animal to another.

II. General Overview

1. Items of concern for transmitting FMD or carrying plant hazards include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:

  • Animal manure, urine, blood, or other bodily secretions or things contaminated by any of these substances;
  • Earth, dirt, and related matter; clay, silt, sand, soil minerals, humus, compost, earthworm castings, muck, plant litter and debris, either individually or in combination;
  • Used motor vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles and bicycles;
  • Farm vehicles, tractors and implements; agricultural equipment, farm tools, garden tools, and garden furniture;
  • Animal equipment, saddles, halters, bridles, livestock blankets, and feeding utensils; food bowls, brushes, buckets;
  • Footwear and farm clothing;
  • Plant propagation equipment;
  • Containers, bags, boxes, crates, skids, pallets;
  • Therapeutic agents, livestock medicines, vaccines, and biologics;
  • Untreated hides, feathers, bone, horns and tusks; unprocessed wool, animal hair;
  • Straw or other organic packing material;
  • Meat-cutting and processing equipment; meat, dairy and egg products; and
  • Plants, plant material, and seeds.

Note: This is not an all-inclusive list. Inspectors should be aware that both animal and plant diseases and pests may be introduced into Canada via various materials and things. Inspection must be a holistic, cooperative approach between the animal health and plant health sections of the CFIA, along with CBSA border service officers. Quick, effective, and regular two-way communication among all three branches of field staff is paramount.

2. Movement of goods to Canada

Due to the size or quantity of the goods, settlers' effects and used vehicles are usually packed in large cargo containers. These usually arrive in Canada by ship at major seaports, or they may arrive at U.S. seaports and enter Canada at land border crossings or by rail as a U.S. "in-transit" shipment. International airports may also have such goods arrive in Canada at their port of entry. It is preferable to examine container contents at the point of arrival, but things are often sent inland to a CBSA warehouse or, under seal, to a release point for examination (destuffing) and/or clearance.

Full visual inspection of items of concern must be carried out prior to full release into Canada.

3. Tracking of the movement of goods into Canada

Port of entry/in-transit containers
The National Import Service Centre (NISC) may be involved with identifying shipments of settlers' effects from countries not designated by Canada as free of FMD entering via the United States, or by in-transit shipments in containers. The NISC must arrange for full visual inspection by either CBSA (which may request CFIA assistance), or forward the information to a destination location for full visual inspection by CFIA district office prior to release.

III. Inspection ProceduresFor Imported Products

Full visual inspection includes, but is not limited to, looking at the undersides of vehicles, wheel wells, above axles, and all nooks and crevices for any visible dirt, soil, or organic material (blood, urine, or feces or any bodily secretions). If the item is not totally free of soil, dirt, or organic material, it should be refused entry or sent to disinfection under CFIA supervision.

Limited items (settlers' and diplomatic effects, and military vehicles from overseas, both Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces [DND/CF] and allies' equipment arriving for training exercises in Canada) will be sent under CFIA seal for cleaning and disinfection to approved C&D locations.

Inspection Procedures For Inspection Of Vehicles And Equipment Footnote 13

Vehicles or vehicle parts, agricultural equipment, and other things pose a risk because of their potential for contamination with soil or organic material, and thus harbour nematodes or other such pests, as well as serious animal diseases, including FMD.

Canada has a zero tolerance for foreign soil, and therefore anything more than dust accumulated during transport is considered as excessive amounts of soil. It is important that the inspector perform a thorough examination of the shipment prior to its release. The minimum equipment necessary for an inspection includes a flashlight and any personal protective equipment (PPE), as required by the inspection site and guidelines for the particular things being inspected.

All inspection staff must be aware of the hazards in their work environment, and ensure that they have received appropriate training on the Agency's Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) program. Pre-occupational checks of the work area are essential to identifying unsafe conditions or situations. Unsafe conditions and situations must be corrected prior to starting inspection. Work should not proceed on third party premises until unsafe conditions and situations are corrected.

Following safe work practices, combined with on-the-job training, helps reduce the chance of an injury to an inspector. For more information on OHS, please contact your area OHS coordinator.

1. Techniques for the inspection of vehicles and vehicle parts:

  1. PPE use is mandatory; all necessary safety equipment must be used by trained personnel when carrying out an inspection.

    PPE may include, but is not limited to:

    Canadian Standards Association (CSA)-approved head protection;
    CSA-approved non-slip footwear;
    CSA-approved eye protection; and
    CSA-approved hearing protection.

  2. While using a flashlight, inspectors safely bend down onto their hands and knees or lie on their side to closely examine the underside of the vehicle. The flashlight provides illumination and may be useful in detecting insects that are drawn to light.
  3. The tires, wheel wells, vehicle underbelly, floor, and pedals must be examined for the presence of soil or organic material. Use of a mechanics creeper or mechanics pit, if available and safely usable, is advised. Any part of the vehicle that may come in contact with soil and/or organic material, or that would be a suitable hiding place for a pest, rodent, or vermin, must be closely examined. This includes opening the hood and inspecting the area around the motor.
    Figure 6. Areas where soil or pests are often found
    Areas where soil or pests are often found
    Figure 7. Mechanic's creeper Footnote 14
    Mechanic's creeper
    Figure 8. Mechanic's pit Footnote 15
    Mechanic's pit
  4. If the vehicle is a truck, the bed must also be examined for soil or organic material, overall cleanliness, and the presence of pests. This area likely would have been in contact with potential contaminating matter or soil, and as such, the inspector must ensure that it is clean.
  5. Any contents in the back of the vehicle (especially if it is a loaded truck) must be examined for cleanliness and freedom from pests or rodents.
  6. The inspector must observe the vehicle during unloading to ensure that any parts of the tire that were blocked from inspection by the floor or ground can be inspected.
  7. If a proper inspection of the vehicle or vehicle parts cannot be performed while still in the aircraft, vessel, or container, and the inspector believes that there is reason for concern, a secondary inspection must be performed in a hangar or enclosed area.
  8. The hangar or enclosed area will be notified that a secondary inspection is to be performed. A hold tag will be placed on the cargo, and the cargo will be moved from the aircraft, vessel, or container to the hangar. If the secondary inspection is requested because of a known or suspected pest infestation or soil contamination, the cargo must be kept on the aircraft, vessel, or container, or other fully enclosed location prior to removal from Canada, or completely tarped prior to being moved and sent for C&D (at full costs to the importer).

2. Summary of techniques for the inspection of pallets, skids, and containers

(For additional information, refer to Appendix I.)

  1. With the aid of a flashlight, the inspector must inspect all cargo for the presence of pests and soil or organic material. A flashlight provides illumination, as well as attracts any insects that are drawn to light.
  2. The clips on the containers must be undone to allow the inspector to open and have a thorough look inside.
  3. The exterior of the container, as well as the exterior of any skids or pallets, must be examined for evidence of pests or rodents, such as insect holes or rodents' nests. This inspection includes safely laying on one's side or onto hands and knees, shining a flashlight around, and ensuring that, overall, the freight is clean and free of hazards. In most cases, it is the underside of the skids, pallets, or other containers where soil, pests, vermin, or rodents are found.
  4. If the cargo is wrapped in cellophane, preventing the inspector from examining the contents, the inspector may make a suitable tear in the cellophane to conduct a proper inspection.
  5. Wood packaging materials made of unfinished (raw) wood must also bear a valid International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) mark on at least two sides of the unit to be admissible into Canada. A phytosanitary certificate may be presented in lieu of the mark. Please refer to the CFIA D- 98-08: Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Material into Canada for details surrounding the mark and its application.
  6. Any bark found on skids and pallets must be removed to ensure that it is insect-free. Inspect skids for signs of boring (sawdust or spirals of shavings), signs of eating (frass+) (Figure 9), or any drill marks.
  7. If the inspector is unable to thoroughly look at all the cargo and there is reason for concern, the inspector has the option of performing a secondary inspection, which can be carried out, either immediately upon its arrival at a hangar or enclosed area, or after the load has been sufficiently broken down.
Figure 9. Brown granular frass (Note exit hole 5 mm wide)
Brown granular frass
Figure 10. Frass plug blocking pupal chamber entrance
Frass plug blocking pupal chamber entrance

3. Movement to another location for secondary inspection

An inspector has the authority, under subsection 7(2) of the Plant Protection Act and section 16 of the Health of Animals Act, to perform a more detailed secondary inspection on any thing that provides reason for concern, or if the thing could not be properly inspected under the conditions on the plane, vessel, or container.

This is a common occurrence with DND equipment returns or similar imports, as the load is often tight against the walls of the cargo hold. CBSA may request a secondary inspection, under the authority of its legislation, if its computer system flags a particular shipment. Secondary inspections will often be required if the shipment is from a country where there is a known current disease outbreak, if the cargo itself is suspect, or if the cargo is Canadian animal products and by-products returning to Canada, refer to Returns and Permit Application Process for Canadian Animals, Semen, Embryos, Animal Products, Animal By-Products, and Finished Pet Food.

All equipment that is subject to secondary inspection should be unloaded into a hangar or terminal to go through the full inspection. A hold tag will be placed on the cargo/item, so it is not released prior to satisfactory completion of the full inspection.

The inspector examines the item closely, and if found free of all hazards, the hold tag will be removed with a verbal release, followed by a written release, issued by the inspector. Where there is a problem identified, the inspector refers the issue to the local CFIA office for further clarification.

Containers may be moved forward for opening and full inspection by the CFIA at an inland location, only if all the following conditions are met:

  1. The containers must be examined by a CFIA Inspector for exterior cleanliness. Containers showing evidence of exterior contamination (soil, organic material) must be cleaned and disinfected before being allowed to proceed inland.
  2. CBSA inspectors must verify with the CFIA at inland examination points that they are equipped to undertake the inspection and C&D, as required before containers may be moved forward.
  3. The containers must move under a CFIA movement licence and be sealed. An envelope must be attached near the seal, containing a copy of the licence and instructions that contents must not be released to final destination without passing CFIA inspection.
  4. Regarding secondary inspection Form CFIA/ACIA 1520 – Report of Inspector, select option a or b, based on the circumstances:
    • a) If the initial report is full, then complete a separate inspector's report. It is important that a complete report is produced. If there is inadequate space on the initial report, then complete a separate report. A copy of the completed report will be given to the owner of the item or agent of the owner.


    • b) Use the initial inspector's report, if there is adequate space remaining on the report. The inspector simply waits to give a copy of the completed report (both initial and secondary inspection) to the owner of the item or to the agent of the owner until the secondary inspection has been performed.

Note: Copies of the final Form CFIA/ACIA 1520 must also be given to the appropriate district veterinarian for cases of non-compliance of the Health of Animals Act, and to the plant protection program officer for non-compliance of the Plant Protection Act.

4. Vehicles, equipment, and other things from countries not designated by the CFIA as free of foot- and-mouth disease

Commercial or personal importation of vehicles, mechanical implements, tools and equipment, or other things must be examined and determined free of organic material and soil. If found non-compliant, they should be ordered removed from the country. Under very specific conditions, the soiled item may be ordered to undergo cleaning and disinfection, conducted at an approved facility at the full costs to the importer. (Refer to Appendix 4, Guidelines for Use of Approved Cleaning and Disinfection Facilities.)

  1. New cars, trucks, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, tractors, farm equipment, farm implements, or other vehicles have no Animal Import Export Division (AIED) restrictions, as long as the shipment is accompanied by proof that they are indeed new and have not been used for any length of time in the FMD endemic country. Acceptable proof is a notarized document from the exporter who accompanies the shipment, stating that the items are newly manufactured and have been packaged for shipment clean and free from soil and organic material. The packing material cannot include hay, straw, or grasses. Shipments are subjected to full visual inspection for verification that conditions have been met.
    1. No evidence of soil or organic matter debris – release the shipment, which may then proceed directly to the distributors.
    2. Evidence of soil or organic matter debris – if the shipment fails verification (i.e. soiled), then the procedures for used equipment (in Item 2 below) go into effect.
  2. Used cars, trucks, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, tractors, farm equipment, farm implements or other vehicles: require a full visual inspection, including the undersides and all nooks and crevices for any visible dirt, soil, or organic material (blood, urine, feces, or any bodily secretions).
    1. Obviously clean with no evidence of soil or organic matter debris, and release the vehicle.
    2. With evidence of soil or organic matter debris:
      • commercial importation – refuse entry
      • settlers'/diplomatic or military vehicles – full cleaning and disinfection at an approved C&D facility (either on-site or under movement licence and seal/tarping).

5. Settlers' effects:

  1. Marine containers of equipment, furniture, and non-agricultural things
    In cooperation with the CFIA, manifests are examined by CBSA staff at the point of arrival for containers with settlers' effects. The CFIA inspector obtains a copy of the manifest and, if applicable, the inland location where the goods are to be forwarded. The inspector transfers this information by fax to the Area Office import coordinator where the goods are to be released by CBSA. The import coordinator should immediately forward the information to the CFIA district office, covering the location where the goods are to arrive (port of entry), so they may arrange inspection times.

    Clothing, footwear, garden implements, outdoor furniture, livestock tools, and harnesses, etc., must be examined and determined free of organic material and soil, or ordered to undergo cleaning and disinfection conducted at an approved facility at the full costs to the importer. Soiled items must proceed to an approved C&D site (see Appendix 4, Guidelines for Use of Approved Cleaning and Disinfection Facilities.)

  2. Agricultural products should be evaluated and only released after consulting the Animal Health Status By Country, the plant protection operational directives, the applicable Acts and Regulations, and Import Operational directives of both the Terrestrial Animal Health and Plant Protection programs. For additional advice, please contact one of the CFIA Local Animal Health Offices, which are listed by province.

IV. Decisions To Allow Or Refuse Entry Post Visual Inspection:

Any commercial (anything for resale or redistribution) shipments of equipment that are found to be soiled on inspection shall be refused entry and issued a Form CFIA/ACIA 5311 – Notice to Remove from Canada. Only under very controlled conditions (see factors listed below) will commercial importations with soil-contaminated goods arriving from a non-designated country be permitted to proceed to an approved CFIA C&D facility. Items too large and/or cumbersome to move safely to a cleaning facility shall be refused entry and ordered removed from Canada.

Note: Send soiled DND diplomatic services' equipment and settlers' effects under movement licence, and seal for C&D, and post-C&D inspection prior to release.

Use the cleaning facility within the existing urban limits of the first point of arrival in Canada. During transport to the cleaning facility, securely contain and/or completely tarp the goods to prevent the dislodging of any soil and contaminants.

After cleaning and disinfection, a second inspection by the CBSA/CFIA is required to confirm the goods are free of soil and contaminants. The shipment may only be released into Canada after CBSA/CFIA has determined the goods are free of soil/organic material or pests, and properly disinfected.

  1. Decisions to refuse entry or allow to proceed to an approved C&D site with subsequent release after a satisfactory inspection post C&D, can be made based on the following factors, using the professional judgment of the inspector:
    1. 1.1 Amount of soil contamination – Is there more than a fine layer of dust that accumulated during transport?
    2. 1.2 Size and mobility of goods – Large, cumbersome goods may require specialized equipment to handle and/or move the item, etc., which may or may not be available.
    3. 1.3 Location of approved wash facility – Is an approved washing facility located at port of entry or in the urban limits?
    4. 1.4 Shape, surface texture of goods – Thorough cleaning and disinfecting of goods and complex equipment with many crevices, ridges, nooks, and crannies can be extremely difficult.
    5. 1.5 Ease of movement and transport – Can goods be transported safely to a wash facility, including complete tarping and containment during all aspects of transport to and from the wash site?
    6. 1.6 Health and safety concerns – Would an inspector be at risk during the re-inspection process (i.e. crawling under a granite block that is being lifted by a forklift, etc.)?
  2. Following the decision to allow an item to be cleaned and disinfected, rather than ordering its removal from Canada, anything contaminated or suspected of being contaminated with soil may be moved for inspection or cleaning at an approved facility. The equipment/material to be moved must comply with the following instructions:
    1. 2.1 The equipment/material must be routed directly to a nearby CFIA-approved cleaning facility or inspection site.
    2. 2.2 Equipment/material must be in a sealed container or be fully enclosed by a tarpaulin (tarp).
    3. 2.3Tarps used to wrap contaminated equipment/material must be of sufficient thickness to avoid ripping during transport and must be in good repair (i.e. free of holes or tears, and must be large enough to completely contain the piece of equipment being moved).
    4. 2.4 As most soil/organic material contamination is found on the bottom of machinery and equipment, the tarp must be tied completely around the bottom of the equipment/material being moved. The tarp must be tied, so no contaminants can fall out of the tarp during transport.
    5. 2.5 The tarp, along with the contaminated equipment at the C&D facility, must be washed and disinfected.
    6. 2.6 The final tarping of the equipment/material must be approved as acceptable by a CBSA/CFIA inspector prior to moving the equipment.

Note: The area used to bring the equipment into compliance must then have all debris appropriately disposed of after the C&D.

V. Additional Procedures and Requirements for Horses or Other Mammals and Birds Imported Into Canada from Countries Endemic for Foot-And-Mouth Disease

All activities below must be performed under CFIA supervision.

The following additional procedures apply to non-cloven hoofed animals (horses, dogs, birds, etc.) being imported into Canada from countries with FMD. All existing import requirements for the specific animals from those countries must be met before these animals are brought to Canada. The conditions for import can be found at the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) and within the Import Reference Document.

Note that the additional measures that follow are not required for animals that legally enter Canada after quarantine within the U.S., because the U.S. employs similar measures to those in Canada for all animals imported from countries with FMD.

  1. Horses and other equids (i.e. mules, donkeys, etc.), along with other import requirements:
    1. 1.1 Horses from countries where FMD exists and those in contact with horses from these countries are required, on arrival, to be sprayed and/or sponged down with an approved disinfectant.
    2. 1.2 The horses' hooves are required to be cleaned and disinfected, on arrival, with an approved disinfectant.
    3. 1.3 Footwear of personnel accompanying the horse(s) will be disinfected on arrival.
    4. 1.4 Tack and accompanying equipment shall be inspected and disinfected, either on arrival, or if sent under seal and licence, at the pre-approved quarantine premises as a precautionary measure against the introduction of FMD. Accompanying equipment will be disinfected with an approved disinfectant.
    5. 1.5 The carrier and/or broker shall also arrange to dispose of excess feed, hay and straw, and manure aboard the aircraft. These materials may be placed in bags for incineration.
    6. 1.6 The horse(s) must not be allowed to come into contact with any animals susceptible to the diseases of concern, such as FMD, during the quarantine period.
    7. 1.7 Crates and transportation vehicles will be cleaned and disinfected with an approved disinfectant before leaving the quarantine site.
    8. 1.8 The carrier, broker, agent, or owner is required to provide for cleaning and disinfection of transport vehicles (at their costs).
  2. Cloven-hoofed animals – are not allowed to be imported from FMD endemic countries. Check Import requirements in AIRS and Import Reference Document.
  3. Avian species (poultry, pigeons, other):
    1. 3.1 Require an import permit (application for an import permit can be found at the following:
      Import Permit Application Form - Live Animals, Semen, Embryos, Animal Products and By-Products).
    2. 3.2 Shipments must be accompanied by official zoosanitary certification, stating that the crates and containers used during transportation to Canada are new and clean.
    3. 3.3 Written approval for routing of the shipment of animals through another country must be attached to the permit and accompany the shipment. With the exception of pre-approved changes in aircraft (connecting flights), animals or germplasm must not be off-loaded at any port of call while en route.
    4. 3.4 The carrier and/or broker shall also arrange to dispose of excess feed, bedding, and manure aboard the aircraft. These materials may be placed in bags for incineration, according to directions given in the operational directive on International Waste Directive (TAHD-DSAT-IE-2002-17-6).
    5. 3.5 The birds must go directly into the quarantine facility.
    6. 3.6 The birds must not come into contact with any animals susceptible to the diseases of concern, such as FMD, during the quarantine period.
    7. 3.7 Before leaving the quarantine site, empty crates and transportation vehicles must be cleaned and disinfected with an approved disinfectant. The carrier, broker, agent, or owner is required to provide for cleaning and disinfection of transport vehicles and crates. Proof of the C&D must be provided to the CFIA prior to release of the transport vehicles and crates from the quarantine site.

Appendix 1 – Associated Plant Protection Division Import Operational Directives

D-01-06, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action

UD-98-08, Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Material into Canada

D-95-26, Phytosanitary requirements for soil and related matter, and for items contaminated with soil and related matter

PI-016: Procedure for inspecting regulated articles for freedom from soil, plants, plant parts and related matter

Appendix 2 – List of Restricted Commodities from a Country Not Recognized By Canada as Free Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease:

  1. The following commodities are generally prohibited:
    1. 1.1 live ruminants;
    2. 1.2 live swine;
    3. 1.3 fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of ruminant or swine origin;
    4. 1.4 fresh (chilled or frozen) products derived from ruminants or swine (other than milk and regulated milk products);
    5. 1.5 fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts or secretions derived from ruminants or swine;
    6. 1.6 ruminant or swine semen;
    7. 1.7 ruminant or swine embryos;
    8. 1.8 personal shipments of dairy products (but excluding infant formula and cheese if not packed in whey);
    9. 1.9 unprocessed hides and skins, unless directed to pre-approved disinfection facilities;
    10. 1.10 raw, unwashed wool, hair and bristles;
    11. 1.11 untreated bones, horns, and hoofs;
    12. 1.12 rendered animal proteins;
    13. 1.13 animal-based fertilizers and manure; and
    14. 1.14 hay and straw.
  2. Meat and meat products: check import requirements in the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS)
    1. 2.1 Personal importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) or dried meat is prohibited from countries affected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).
    2. 2.2 Commercially produced shelf-stable, sterile, cooked, products, other than bovine, ovine, and caprine origin packaged in hermetically sealed containers (i.e. canned), may be allowed entry under certain conditions.
    3. 2.3 Commercial importations may be allowed entry under certain conditions.
  3. Dairy products (commercial shipments): Refer to Milk and Regulated Milk Products – Import Procedures (AHPD-DSAE-IE-2001-4-4).
  4. Restricted entry products – import permit:
    Other processed products or by-products derived from ruminants or swine may be allowed entry occasionally under import permit conditions, for example, for research. There is no consolidated list of these products, as new products are continuously being developed. An importer will submit a permit application form, detailing the processing conditions of the product and its end use. If it is determined that the process will inactivate the FMD virus, then a permit may be issued and the product will be allowed entry under those conditions.

Appendix 3 – Table Of Disinfectants

Notes: Products effective and safe for decontamination of the hands and the skin are limited for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus.

Citric acid may be added to washing water to induce antiviral conditions by lowering the pH.

Vinegar and household bleach are both common disinfectants and effective when used at concentrations recommended (Table 1).

Table 1. List of acceptable disinfectants
Disinfectant Group Form (usual) Strength Of Usual Dilution (final concentration) Strength Of Final Dilution weight/volume
Citric acid Powder 2 grams/litre 0.2% (weight/volume)
Acetic Acid (household vinegar) Liquid 4% 2%
Hydrochloric acid Concent acid (10 Mole) 1:50 2% (weight/volume)
Virkon™ Powder 20 grams/litre 2% (weight/volume)
Sodium hypochlorite NaOC1 (household bleach) Conc. liquid (5.25% available chlorine) 1:10 5.25% available chlorine (52,500 ppm)
Calcium hypochlorite
Ca (CIO)2
Solid 30 grams/litre 2%–3% available chlorine (20,000 - 30,000 ppm)
Sodium hydroxide pellets 20 grams/litre 2% (weight/volume)
Sodium carbonate
- anhydrous (Na2CO3)
- washing soda (Na2 CO3. 10H2O)
40 grams/litre
100 g/litre
4% (weight/volume)
10% (weight/volume)

Note: The use of disinfectants listed within this table should be verified with a CFIA inspector. Varying the pH of the environment of certain microbes outside of the range pH 5–10 is a practical method for destroying them, provided that all organic material has been adequately removed. (Adapted from AUSVET PLAN, Operational Procedures Manual, Decontamination, Version 3.2, 2008

Dilution rates for various disinfectants relate to effectiveness when applied to a clean surface only. A dirty surface must be thoroughly cleaned before satisfactorily disinfecting, because the dirt may make the disinfectant ineffective. Ensure that the surface or material is thoroughly cleaned with detergent (or soap) and hot water, and that all feces, litter, and organic material are removed prior to applying the disinfectant.

Alternative disinfectants may be used. Please consult with Area Emergency Response Team (AERT) specialists via the local CFIA animal health office for advice.

Appendix 4 – Guidelines For Use Of Approved Cleaning And Disinfection Facilities

Items that are soiled are either to be refused entry and ordered removed from Canada or sent for cleaning and disinfection (C&D). If the decision is to refuse entry, then the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) inspector either issues:

  • a Notice of Prohibition of Movement for goods found contaminated with soil and orders the item removed from Canada; or
  • a Form CFIA/ACIA 5311 – Notice to Remove from Canada.

When a decision is made to allow cleaning and disinfection of soil/organic materials, and contaminated things, then the CFIA inspector must issue a Notice to treat or Movement Certificate to allow the movement of goods to an approved washing and C&D facility located within city/urban limits. Goods must be in a sealed container or secured by tarpaulin of sufficient size and thickness, so no soil is dislodged during transport to the approved wash facility. The tarpaulin and transport container, along with the contaminated goods, must be washed. It is the responsibility of importers to arrange for the C&D, at their cost, at a nearby CFIA-approved cleaning facility.

Note: Consult with the Area Emergency Response Team (AERT) specialists via the local CFIA animal health office to determine whether the required disinfection can be arranged at the facility.

The importer is responsible for all costs associated with C&D, including the handling and transportation, if the item requires moving.

After goods have been cleaned, re-inspection by Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)/CFIA is required, prior to release of goods, to confirm that soil removal and disinfection have been carried out effectively.

If CBSA has carried out the re-inspection, it should immediately advise the CFIA of any concerns regarding the cleaning facility's waste water and debris containment and disposal, spill management, or other concerns.

All areas where soil-contaminated goods were held prior to cleaning must have any excess soil/organic material disposed of appropriately with subsequent washing and disinfection.

Movement to an inland location for inspection/re-inspection is not recommended. In certain situations, however, it is necessary, such as settlers' effects entering Canada from the U.S. and where the commodity was "in transit/in bond" while in the U.S.

Guidelines for movement to and use of inland inspection facilities:

Containers/things may move forward for opening and inspection by the CFIA at an inland location, provided the following conditions are met:

  1. The container or thing must be completely tarped/enclosed to avoid risk of soil or organic material falling off in-transit to the inland inspection facility.
  2. Inland inspection facilities must
    1. 2.1 be a CBSA bonded or sufferance warehouse in an urban location.
    2. 2.2 have drains in a designated wash area that are connected to a municipal sewage system.
    3. 2.3 preferably be indoor facilities with satisfactory lighting and ventilation. Outdoor locations may be considered on a seasonal basis, provided satisfactory drainage is available and weather conditions are such that potentially contaminated material will not become airborne.
  3. Mobile wash services may be employed if they come to the inspection facilities.
  4. Potentially contaminated/contaminated equipment that is subject to pressure wash should have a wetting agent applied to visible soil and organic material prior to the wash to prevent aerosols from being formed. A wetting solution may be as simple as a vinegar/water (50:50) solution or a detergent solution.
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