Denomination: 'Knowles'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'AC Knowles'
Botanical Name: Bromus riparius x B. inermis
Applicant/Holder: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon
Saskatoon Research Centre
107 Science Place
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
S7N 0X2
Breeder: Bruce Coulman, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Agent in Canada: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization
107 Science Place
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
S7N 0X2
Tel: (306) 385-9316
Application Date: 2000-04-21
Application Number: 00-2204
Protective direction granted: 2000-04-21
Protective direction withdrawn: 2004-05-19
Grant of Rights Date: 2004-05-19
Certificate Number: 1807

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'Fleet' (Bromus riparius Rehm.) and 'Carlton' (B. inermis Leyss.)

Summary: 'Knowles' is a hybrid bromegrass variety which produces plants with narrower crowns than those of 'Carlton'. The leaves of 'Knowles' have sparse to moderate pubescence while those of 'Carlton' are glabrous. 'Knowles' has wider and longer flag leaves and wider leaf blades than 'Fleet'. Intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the panicles is weak to moderate for 'Knowles' while it is strong for 'Carlton'. 'Knowles' produces lighter seed than 'Fleet' and heavier seed than 'Carlton'.


The plants of hybrid bromegrass variety 'Knowles' have erect to intermediate growth habit. The crowns of the plant are narrow to medium in width with a sparse to moderate degree of basal tillering. The collar of the stems is v-shaped. The leaves are narrow to medium in width and medium in length. The attitude of the leaves is semi-erect. Pubescence of the leaves is sparse to moderate. The leaf sheaths are green in colour and the ligule is present. The flag leaves are narrow to medium in width, short to medium in length and there are no auricles.

The panicles of 'Knowles' are moderately open and have an erect to semi-erect attitude. Intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the panicles is weak to moderate.

Origin & Breeding History: 'Knowles' (experimental designation S9197) was selected from space planted nurseries of hybrid bromegrass lines S8949, S9044 and S9073. These three lines were formed in 1976 and 1977 at the Saskatoon Research Centre by crossing plants from various lines of Bromus riparius (lines which were used to form varieties 'Paddock' and 'Fleet') with plants of B. inermis (mainly from the background of variety 'Signal') and inter-pollinating selected F1 hybrid plants. Selected plants from these three lines were intercrossed to produce a synthetic line designated S9197. S9197 was selected for increased vigour, improved floret fertility, better seed type (no awns or pubescence), reduced creep, good regrowth and fall greenness. From 1981 to 1995, various evaluation nurseries were established, selections made and greenhouse poly-cross pollinations carried out. Sixty plants were used to establish an increase nursery in 1985. Additional plants were added in 1989 and 1991, while other plants showing inferior characteristics were removed. In 1995, the nursery was almost doubled in size by adding superior plants from other nurseries. In 1996, an additional 30 selected plants and their poly-cross progenies were added to increase the size of the nursery to over 1300 plants. Seed harvested from the expanded nursery is the breeder seed of 'Knowles'.

Tests & Trials: The tests and trials for 'Knowles' were conducted at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan during the summers of 2001 and 2002. There were ten replicates per variety distributed in a randomized complete block experimental design. Each replicate consisted of ten plants with a spacing between plants of 1 metre. The spacing between replicates was also 1 metre.

Comparison table for 'Knowles' with reference varieties 'Fleet' (Bromus riparius Rehm.) and 'Carlton' (B. inermis Leyss.)

Seed weight (g/100 seeds)

  'Knowles' 'Fleet' (Bromus riparius Rehm.) 'Carlton' (B. inermis Leyss.)
mean 0.48 0.54 0.37
std. deviation 0.02 0.02 0.02
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