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D-00-07: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

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Effective date: January 20, 2020
(10th revision)

Subject

This directive provides the phytosanitary import requirements for regulated articles in order to prevent the entry of apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) into British Columbia (BC) from the continental United States and Mexico. This directive also describes the domestic movement requirements related to apple maggot. These requirements are in addition to other restrictions such as those for Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), designated virus diseases of fruit trees, and regulated soil-borne pests.

The following changes have been made as part of this revision:

This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-00-07.

On this page

1.0 Legislative authority

2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions of terms used in this document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

3.0 Introduction

Rhagoletis pomonella, apple maggot, is indigenous to hawthorns (Crataegus spp.) in eastern North America. The first record of this insect attacking apple (Malus spp.) in Canada was in Ontario, in 1896. The main hosts of apple maggot are apples and crabapples (Malus spp.) and hawthorn; it has been a serious pest of apples in eastern Canada for more than 100 years.

Apple maggot was detected for the first time in western Canada in 2006 when it was found in Edmonton, Alberta and in the Fraser Valley, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island regions of British Columbia (BC). In 2013, apple maggot was also confirmed in Prince George, BC. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) regulates the importation and domestic movement of regulated articles including fresh fruit and plants with roots, used apple containers, and soil to prevent the introduction and spread of apple maggot into and within BC. This insect is considered to have a limited distribution in BC.

The Okanagan, Similkameen and Creston Valleys in the southern interior of BC are the only major apple-growing areas in Canada that remain free from this pest. These interior fruit-producing regions in BC are surrounded by steep mountain ranges and are geographically isolated from known apple maggot populations in Canada. The most likely pathways for the movement of apple maggot into the fruit-producing valleys of southern interior BC are human-assisted spread from established populations in North America or natural spread from adjacent infested areas.

The domestic movement into BC of regulated articles, such as apple fruit, nursery stock, used containers and soil from infested areas is regulated under the Plant Protection Regulations. This directive describes the phytosanitary requirements that are in place to mitigate the risk associated with both the domestic movement and importation of regulated articles into areas of BC where apple maggot does not occur.

4.0 Scope

4.1 Regulated pests

Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), apple maggot

See the List of pests regulated by Canada.

Note

that the CFIA may take action on articles found to be infested with pests of potential quarantine concern even if they are not yet included on this list.

4.2 Regulated articles

Note

These articles may also be subject to other requirements in addition to those within the scope of this directive. Please consult the list of all Plant protection directives or the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) for more information.

4.3 Regulated areas

Regulated areas are areas where R. pomonella is considered to occur. The areas regulated for R. pomonella include all provinces in Canada, except the Pest Free Area in BC, all states in the continental United States and all states of Mexico.

4.4 Pest Free Areas

This directive establishes a Pest Free Area (PFA) for R. pomonella in the commercial tree fruit production areas in the southern interior of the province of BC. Please refer to Appendix 1 for a map and list of the regional districts and electoral areas that make up the PFA.

The CFIA carries out annual surveys for R. pomonella in BC to verify the "pest free status" of these areas, detect new pest incursions and support access to export markets.

5.0 General requirements

Except under the provisions specified in this directive, no regulated articles may be moved from regulated areas into the province of BC or from regulated areas within BC into the PFA.

Note

This directive describes only the phytosanitary requirements related to Rhagoletis pomonella. Other requirements may also apply, particularly directives D-95-08 and D-08-04. Please consult the list of Plant protection directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.

5.1 Requirements for regulated articles from Mexico entering the province of BC

5.1.1 Plants

The regulated host plants of apple maggot are currently not authorized for importation into Canada from Mexico; please see directive D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting for details.

5.1.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A Permit to Import is not required. A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Cold treatment is required; please see Appendix 2 for options. The phytosanitary certificate must specify the treatment details.

5.1.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

A Permit to Import is not required. A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Empty used containers that have been used to transport regulated fresh fruit may enter BC provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate specifying the treatment.

5.2 Requirements for regulated articles from the United States entering the province of BC

5.2.1 Plants with roots

Note

Due to requirements for pests other than apple maggot, Malus spp. and Prunus spp. plants are only admissible into Canada from approved sources in certain states of the United States and are subject to additional specific import requirements. Please refer to D-94-35: List of Sources Approved to Export Fruit Tree and Grape Propagative Material to Canada.

A Permit to Import and a phytosanitary certificate are required. The phytosanitary certificate must indicate the state and county of origin.

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil and soil-related matter. The phytosanitary certificate must include the following additional declaration:

    "The plants in this consignment were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  2. The plants were produced in a county that is free from apple maggot based on annual surveys. The phytosanitary certificate must include the following additional declaration:

    "The plants in this consignment were produced in a county in the continental United States in which, on the basis of annual official surveys, the apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) does not occur."

  3. Prunus avium plants may enter BC with some soil adhering to the roots provided they are one year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil, to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the phytosanitary certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  4. Plants that are produced at a United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approved Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) may enter BC with some soil adhering to the roots. The plants must be free from fruit and shaken to remove most soil, to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the phytosanitary certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment were produced in a USDA-APHIS approved space [Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)] and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

Note

The process for seeking approval of a PFPP or PFPS for apple maggot must be initiated by USDA-APHIS. The CFIA will review the information submitted by USDA-APHIS and assess whether the proposed phytosanitary measures are sufficient to preclude the introduction and spread of apple maggot.

5.2.2 Fresh fruits

5.2.2.1 Prunus avium and P. cerasus

Fresh fruits of Prunus avium and P. cerasus from Utah and Wisconsin are prohibited entry to BC.

There are no requirements related to apple maggot for fresh cherry fruit from other states.

5.2.2.2 Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A Permit to Import is not required. A phytosanitary certificate is required. The phytosanitary certificate must indicate the state and county of origin.

The shipment must conform to one of the following options:

Option 1: Cold treatment

Appendix 2 describes the cold treatment options. The phytosanitary certificate must specify the treatment details.

Option 2: Pest free county

Certification for freedom from apple maggot is monitored by USDA-APHIS. The pest free county status is based on the results of annual official surveys, isolation from sources of infestation and systematic sampling and inspections of the fruit prior to export.

The following additional declaration must appear on the phytosanitary certificate:

"The fruit in this consignment was grown in a county which has been surveyed annually in a manner which clearly establishes that the apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) does not occur and in addition this fruit was harvested a minimum of one mile from any neighbouring county infestations."

Option 3: Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)

A commercial orchard which is free from apple maggot, but located within an apple maggot infested county in the continental United States, may be designated as a Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) by USDA-APHIS. The following additional declaration must appear on the phytosanitary certificate:

"The fruit in this consignment was harvested from a commercial orchard in the designated apple maggot free zone space (identification name or number) in the county of space."

Note

Producers wishing to qualify as a PFPS must file a request with their state certification authority. The state must then make representation to the USDA-APHIS. Details concerning the name of the grower(s), location of the orchard(s), isolation factors including proximity to nearest known apple maggot infestation, survey methods and survey results are required and should be included in such a representation.

5.2.2.3 Malus spp. produced in the PFA in BC and packed in Washington State

Apples produced in an area of BC that is free from apple maggot and that are packed in Washington State and then returned to the province of BC may be exempted from cold treatment provided they are accompanied by a re-export phytosanitary certificate issued by United States officials and accompanied by the CFIA phytosanitary certificate with the following additional declaration:

"The fruit in this consignment was produced in a pest free area for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) in British Columbia."

Packers located in Washington State that wish to qualify for the exemption from cold treatment must file a request with the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA). WSDA must make representation to USDA-APHIS in Washington D.C. Details such as the name of the packer, inventory controls, safeguarding measures, the location of adjacent orchard(s) and unmanaged host trees, and proximity to the nearest known apple maggot infestation are required and should be included in such a representation.

5.2.2.4 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport apple maggot host materials may enter BC provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must either be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate or a USDA-APHIS Federal Certificate (see Appendix 3) specifying the treatment.

5.3 Requirements for regulated articles entering BC from other regions of Canada

5.3.1 Plants with roots

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required. One of the following options must be met:

  1. The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil. The Movement Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

    "The plants in this consignment were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  2. Prunus avium plants that are not completely free from soil may enter BC provided they are 1 year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  3. Plants that are produced at an approved Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) may enter BC with some soil adhering to the roots. The plants must be free from fruit and shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment were produced in a CFIA-approved space [Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)] and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

Note

The process for seeking CFIA approval of a PFPP or PFPS for apple maggot must be initiated by provincial agricultural authorities. The CFIA will review the information submitted by the province and assess whether the proposed phytosanitary measures are sufficient to preclude the introduction and spread of apple maggot. The CFIA will then enter into compliance agreements with individual source nurseries.

5.3.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required.

The fruit must undergo a cold treatment as described in Appendix 2. The Movement Certificate must specify the treatment details.

5.3.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport apple maggot host materials may enter BC provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA, specifying the treatment.

5.4 Requirements for regulated articles moving into the Pest Free Area (PFA) in BC from regulated areas of BC

5.4.1 Plants with roots

A Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA in BC is required.

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil. The Movement Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

    "The plants in this consignment were inspected by the CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  2. Prunus avium plants that are not completely free from soil may enter the PFA in BC provided they are 1 year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

  3. The nursery has entered into a compliance agreement with the CFIA specifying the measures used to mitigate the risk of apple maggot (Appendix 4). The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment meet the requirements of the British Columbia Apple Maggot Program."

  4. Plants that are produced at an approved Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) may enter the PFA with some soil adhering to the roots. The plants must be free from fruit and shaken to remove most soil, to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

    "The plants in this consignment were produced in a CFIA-approved [Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)] and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

Note

The process for seeking CFIA approval of a PFPP or PFPS for apple maggot must be initiated by provincial agricultural authorities. The CFIA will review the information submitted by the province and assess whether the proposed phytosanitary measures are sufficient to preclude the introduction and spread of apple maggot. The CFIA will then enter into compliance agreements with individual source nurseries.

5.4.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp. produced in regulated areas of BC

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required.

The fruit must undergo a cold treatment as described in Appendix 2. The Movement Certificate must specify the treatment details.

5.4.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport regulated articles may enter the PFA from other regions of BC provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA, specifying the treatment.

5.5 Requirements for regulated articles transiting BC

Regulated commodities entering BC in transit to out of province destinations must remain unopened and must transit BC directly and expeditiously to the destination province.

6.0 Non-compliance

Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when reaching their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and may be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested articles may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests.

The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.

The CFIA will advise the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin and/or re-export of any non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

7.0 References

7.1 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.

7.2 Supporting documents

For biological information, please refer to the CFIA's Fact Sheet on Rhagoletis pomonella.

8.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Map of the Pest Free Area for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) in British Columbia

The apple maggot Pest Free Area includes the following electoral areas within the following regional districts in BC:

Image - The apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia. Description follows.
Description of image – The apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia

This map of British Columbia shows the electoral areas and regional districts which make up the apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia. The Pest Free Area includes electoral areas within the Central Kootenay Regional District, the Central Okanagan Regional District, the Columbia-Shuswap Regional District, the Kootenay-Boundary Regional District, the North Okanagan Regional District and the Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District.

Appendix 2: Cold treatment

The cold storage room must be maintained at a maximum temperature of:

  1. 0.6°C (33°F) for a minimum of 42 continuous days; or
  2. 3.3°C (38°F) for a minimum of 90 continuous days

To certify that cold treatment requirements have been met:

Appendix 3: USDA-APHIS Form PPQ-540

Image - United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-PPQ Certificate – Form PPQ-540. Description follows.
Description of image – USDA-APHIS-PPQ Certificate – Form PPQ-540

This is an image of a sample USDA-APHIS Federal Certificate that may be used to certify used fruit containers, in lieu of a phytosanitary certificate. The form includes the following elements: a serial number, date issued, date void, name of consignor, shipping point, name and address of consignee, vehicle identification information, description of the articles being certified, and the signature of the issuing inspector. It also includes the following statement: "The articles described below are certified under all applicable Federal or State cooperative domestic plant quarantines."

Appendix 4: British Columbia Apple Maggot Program: Annual Compliance Agreement and Application Form

BC Apple Maggot Program requirements

The BC Apple Maggot Program offers a mechanism for moving regulated plants that are potted into soil-free growing media into the Pest Free Area (PFA) in BC from regulated areas of BC between November 1 and June 1. Regulated plants are: plants with roots of all species, hybrids and horticultural varieties of Malus spp., Crataegus spp., Prunus avium and P. cerasus.

The facility must enter into an annual compliance agreement with the CFIA and each consignment of plants must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate that confirms the plants meet the conditions of the BC Apple Maggot Program, as described below. There are three options:

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Additional requirements:

British Columbia Apple Maggot Program: Annual Compliance Agreement and Application Form

A. Contact Information

Production Facility (Nursery) Name: space

Owner / Manager: space
(name of person signing this agreement)

Mailing Address: space

Street Address: space

Telephone: space Email / Fax: space

Contact information of the person(s) responsible for providing records to the CFIA

  1. Primary Contact: space

    Position / Title: space

    Telephone: space Email: space

  2. Alternate Contact: space

    Position / Title: space

    Telephone: space Email: space

The facility is located in an apple maggot regulated area in British Columbia (B.C.) and seeks authorization from the CFIA to move potted host plants (Malus spp., Crataegus spp., Prunus avium and/or P. cerasus in soil-free growing media) into the apple maggot Pest Free Area (PFA) between November 1st and June 1st. The following options may be used [mark appropriate boxes]:

B. Facility requirements

The owner/manager of the facility must complete and sign this form and submit it to their local CFIA office along with the following written information:

  1. Name and contact information of the person(s) responsible for implementing the B.C. Apple Maggot Program and obtaining a Movement Certificate for host plants destined to the PFA.
  2. A brief description of the types of host plants that are expected to be shipped under the B.C. Apple Maggot Program, including: the genus/species/variety, age/size, source and approximate numbers.
  3. Maps which show the location of the growing and holding areas for all regulated nursery stock and any permanent host plants growing on or adjacent to the property. Please identify where plants in the B.C. Apple Maggot Program and where newly sourced host plants will be held.
  4. Facilities that have fruit-bearing host trees growing on their property must briefly describe their pest management program for apple maggot (e.g. chemical control, or bagging fruit/trees, or trapping to demonstrate that apple maggot is not present combined with disposal of fallen fruit), unless they are only shipping under Option 1.
  5. Description of how host plants destined for the PFA are identified and segregated from other host material.
  6. Evidence that an inventory system is in place that will track plants in the B.C. Apple Maggot Program.
  7. Anticipated timelines for various activities, such as:
    • Sourcing new plants for the B.C. Apple Maggot Program (from other nurseries in B.C., from other provinces and from other countries)
    • Fruit removal
    • Plant digging/lifting
    • Soil removal
    • Potting must occur between November 1 and June 1

The facility agrees to:

  1. Maintain records documenting the activities listed above, including inspection reports provided by CFIA and to make these records available to the CFIA upon request.
  2. Notify the CFIA when activities related to this program occur so the CFIA can verify them.
  3. Contact the CFIA to request inspections to verify freedom from soil, fruit and apple maggot prior to potting the plants in soil-free growing media.
  4. Provide the CFIA with an inventory of all host plants at the facility prior to the issuance of the first Movement Certificate for the B.C. Apple Maggot Program. Updated inventories must be provided to the CFIA upon request.
  5. Request a Movement Certificate from the CFIA for each shipment of host plants shipped into the PFA.

Failure to comply with any of the above requirements will result in the cancellation of the facility's approval status.

C. Applicant statement

I am the owner/manager and/or the legally authorized representative of the Production Facility (Nursery).

I have read, have understood and agree to comply with all the requirements outlined above and as set out in CFIA directive D-00-07.

I understand that the information I provide on this document is collected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) under the authority of the Plant Protection Act for the purpose of approval to process regulated plants produced in an area regulated for apple maggot. In relation to this, I understand/acknowledge that my personal information collected by the CFIA under Plant Protection Export Programs will be dealt with under the provisions of the Privacy Act and will be stored in Personal Information Bank CFIA IPP 155 and this information may be accessible or protected as required under the provisions of the Access to Information Act. I also acknowledge that this information will be retained for a period of 10 years in accordance with the Agency's retention and disposition policies.

D. Approval Statement from the CFIA
(to be completed by CFIA Regional Program Officer or Inspector)

The above production facility has been inspected and complies with all the requirements outlined in this agreement. The facility is approved to participate in the B.C. Apple Maggot Program.

Potted host plants that comply with requirements outlined in this agreement are eligible to move into the apple maggot PFA accompanied by a CFIA Movement Certificate between space (date) and space (date).

Date of inspection: space

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