D-01-12: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation and Domestic Movement of Firewood
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Effective Date: May 6, 2010
This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements for the import of firewood to prevent the entry to Canada of quarantine pests from all other areas of the world. This policy also provides information regarding current domestic controls that manage the spread of regulated pests within Canada.
This directive has been revised to clarify the requirement to present a phytosanitary certificate, indicating heat treatment details, for firewood originating from all areas of the world including the United States (U.S.)
Table of Contents
- Amendment Record
- Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
- 1.0 General Requirements
- 2.0 Specific Requirements
- 3.0 Inspection Requirements
- 4.0 Non-Compliance
- 5.0 Appendices
This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
Chief Plant Health Officer
Amendments to this directive shall be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.
- Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
- Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
- National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
Canada has a vast resource of deciduous and coniferous forest tree species that are susceptible to foreign invasive pests. Firewood, similar to solid wood packing materials, can be sourced from a wide variety of tree species originating from many different geographic and climatic areas of the world. Therefore, the number of potential and unknown invasive pests associated with firewood is high.
In the past, firewood has not been regulated as a separate commodity but regulated by species of wood, origin of the firewood and pest associations. As a result, no single policy regulated all species of wood used as firewood.
Typically, firewood may originate from the thinning of wood lots, salvaged from forestry slash piles, the culling of undesirable or damaged species, removal of dead or dying trees, or the management of firewood production areas. When firewood is harvested or collected from forested areas it may be infested with various pests (i.e., bark beetles, deep wood boring insects or root stain diseases). Consequently, the transportation of firewood creates a pathway for the spread of pests.
This directive is for the use of importers, shippers, recreational groups, campers, CFIA inspectors, Canada Border Services Agency and national plant protection organizations.
ISPM No. 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. FAO, Rome. (updated annually)
ISPM No. 4, Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Areas. 1996. FAO, Rome.
ISPM No. 10, Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest Free Production Sites. 1999. FAO, Rome.
This directive supercedes D-01-12 (1st Revision) and the import requirements pertaining to firewood in the following Canadian plant protection policies: D-98-09, D-99-03, D-98-02, D-94-22, D-97-10, D-97-07 and D-02-12.
This directive consolidates the domestic movement requirements pertaining to firewood in the following Canadian plant protection policies: D-98-09, D-99-03, D-98-02, D-94-22, D-97-10.
This directive does not supercede or consolidate the import requirements pertaining to firewood in the following Canadian plant protection policies: D-01-01, D-00-08.
This directive does not supercede or consolidate the domestic movement requirements pertaining to firewood in the following Canadian plant protection policy: D-97-07.
Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
1.0 General Requirements
1.1 Legislative Authority
The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22
The Plant Protection Regulations. SOR 95/212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)
The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Website.
1.3 Regulated pests
Currently there are numerous pests regulated by Canada that could be associated with untreated firewood. The following list should not be considered inclusive of all species that potentially represent a quarantine pest risk.
- Bretziella fagacearum (previously known as Ceratocystis fagacearum) (Oak wilt disease)
- Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina (Scleroderris canker)
- Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker)
- Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)
- Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease)
- Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden oak death)
- Phytophthora spp. (Phytophthora disease of alder)
- Erwinia salicis (Watermark disease of willow)
- Xanthomonas populi (Bacterial poplar canker)
- Adelges tsugae (Hemlock woolly adelgid)
- Adelges piceae (Balsam woolly adelgid)
- Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle)
- Callipogon relictus (Korean relict long-horned beetle)
- Callidiellum rufipenne (Japanese long-horn beetle)Footnote 1
- Hylastes ater (European bark beetle)
- Hylurgus ligniperda (Red-haired pine bark beetle)Footnote 1
- Ips typographus (Spruce bark beetle)
- Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth)
- Lymantria mathura (Rosy gypsy moth)
- Lymantria monacha (Nun moth)
- Monochamus alternatus (Japanese pine sawyer)
- Operophtera brumata (Winter moth)
- Sirex noctilio (European woodwasp)
- Tetropium castanea
- Tetropium fuscum (Brown spruce longhorn beetle)
- Tomicus piniperda (European Pine shoot beetle)
- Trichoferus (Hesperophanes) campestri
- Zeuzera pyrina (Leopard moth)
1.4 Regulated Commodities
Firewood of all species originating from any area of the world including but not limited to: Abies, Acer, Alnus, Betula, Carya, Crategus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Larix, Maclura, Malus, Picea, Pinus, Populus, Pseudotsuga, Prunus, Pyrus, Quercus, Salix, Tsuga, Tilia, and Ulmus.
Note: The import and domestic movement requirements for wood chips, wood mulch, smoker chips and mesquite chips are contained in D-02-12.
1.5 Exempt Commodities
Processed fuel logs and fuel wood pellets.
1.6 Regulated Areas
All areas of the world outside of Canada; and
All areas of Canada regulated for pests identified on the list of "Pests regulated by Canada" including Dutch elm disease, European larch canker, balsam woolly adelgid, hemlock woolly adelgid, gypsy moth and pine shoot beetle.
2.0 Specific Requirements
The import of firewood from all areas of the world is prohibited, unless the exporting country can clearly demonstrate that the conditions specified in Section 2.2 below have been met.
The import of all species of firewood from areas regulated for Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (D-03-08) is prohibited.
The import of all species of firewood with bark from all areas of the world except the continental United States is prohibited.
The import of species known to be hosts of Phytophthora ramorum as specified in policy D-01-01 used for firewood and originating from areas regulated for Phytophthora ramorum as specified in policy D-01-01 is prohibited.
The import of alder firewood from areas regulated for Phytophthora spp. pathogenic to alders (D-00-08) is prohibited.
2.2 Import Requirements
2.2.1 Import requirements for all species of firewood from all areas of the world except the continental U.S.
- Prior approval from the CFIA is required before importation of this product from outside the continental United States, and
- A Permit to Import is required, and
- A Phytosanitary Certificate from the exporting country specifying heat treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
- Prior to issuance of an import permit, technical verification by CFIA approved kiln evaluators will be required, and
- A review of the National Plant Protection Organization's system oversight by the CFIA or CFIA approved agency in the country of origin will be required.
Note: The Canadian importer will be responsible for all costs associated with the verification process.
Heat treatment standard: Heat treatment must reach a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.
Debarking standard: Firewood that has been subjected to any process that results in the removal of bark, to the following tolerance: pieces of bark must be less than 3 cm in width regardless of the length, or greater than 3 cm in width with the total surface area of an individual piece of bark being less than 50 square cm.
2.2.2 Import requirements for all species of firewood originating from the continental U.S.
A Permit to Import is required.
A Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO must accompany the shipment.
Firewood must be heat treated as described by the following conditions to be permitted entry into Canada:
Heat treated: the firewood must be heat treated using equipment (i.e., kiln) that is capable of heating wood to a minimum core temperature of 56°C for a minimum of 30 minutes.
Under specific permit conditions, the Phytosanitary Certificate maybe waived in lieu of a Certificate of Origin (Appendix 2) for firewood imported from the U.S. The requirement for a Phytosanitary Certificate will be waived under the following conditions:
- Originating from a Pest Free Area: an area in which a specific pest or pests do not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained; or
- Originating from an Area of Identical Pest Distribution: an area in which the distribution of regulated pests occur, as demonstrated by scientific evidence, and is identical to the distribution of regulated pests in the importing area of Canada; or
- Firewood species originating from the continental United States that are not hosts to any of the pests listed on Canada's list of regulated pests.
2.2.3 Other Options
The CFIA may approve the import of firewood based on the evaluation of other treatment measures or certification systems if they can be proven to mitigate the risk of moving any life stage of all quarantine pests associated with firewood.
In Canada, the movement of firewood is regulated under several domestic policies addressing specific pests and host associations. Importers may be approved to use the certification mechanisms within these policies if it can be proven that such mechanisms mitigate the risk of moving any life stages of all quarantine pests associated with firewood. The process of approval may involve a pest risk analysis to identify all regulated pest associations and the efficacy of proposed treatment or certification options.
If required, the CFIA may approve private treatment facilities (i.e., fumigation, heat treatment) operating under a system acceptable to the CFIA and monitored and endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting county.
Importers wishing to use alternative options should contact a local CFIA office in advance of arranging for any importation of fire wood. A registry of CFIA offices is maintained on the CFIA Website, Forestry page.
2.3 Domestic Requirements
2.3.1 The movement of firewood from non-regulated pest areas of Canada to other areas of Canada.
A Movement Certificate and CFIA inspection are not required. Firewood may be moved without restriction.
2.3.2 The movement of firewood from regulated pest areas of Canada to regulated areas of identical pest distribution of Canada.
A Movement Certificate and CFIA inspection are not required, except for the movement conditions of firewood of all elm species as regulated in D-97-07.
2.3.3 The movement of firewood from regulated pest areas of Canada to non-regulated areas of Canada.
The movement of firewood from regulated pests area of Canada to non-regulated areas of Canada is dependent on the policy directive(s) governing the specific regulated pest(s). A current inventory of Plant Protection Policy Directives is maintained on the CFIA Website.
The domestic movement of firewood in Canada depends on the prohibition, treatment and certification options described in, but not limited to, the following policy directives: D-98-09 (gypsy moth), D-94-22 (pine shoot beetle), D-97-07 (Dutch elm disease) and D-97-10 (European larch canker ).
Contact a local CFIA office or consult the CFIA Forestry Website for additional information.
3.0 Inspection Requirements
All shipments of firewood imported into Canada are subject to inspection and/or sampling for regulated pests. Pursuant to the operational work plan, CFIA inspectors will inspect and ensure that:
The Canadian importer holds a valid Permit to Import. One Permit to Import is required for each off-continent country. One Permit to Import is required for each state of the U.S.
A valid Phytosanitary Certificate issued under the authority of the NPPO of the exporting country accompanies the consignment and certifies that the consignment meets the import conditions of this directive.
The Phytosanitary Certificate requirement may be waived for shipments of firewood from the U.S. Under these circumstances, a Certificate of Origin is required and will be stated on the Permit to Import.
If applicable, a valid Movement Certificate issued under the authority of the CFIA accompanies the consignment and meets the Canadian phytosanitary requirements for movement from regulated areas within Canada.
Shipments not meeting the import requirements of this directive will be refused entry, returned to origin or disposed of at the importer's expense.
Domestic shipments not meeting the movement requirements for regulated areas of Canada and this directive will be destroyed, disposed of, or returned to the place or origin at the consignee's expense.
In cases where a CFIA inspector has determined that it is both practical and does not constitute a biological risk to introducing a pest, the inspector may order the non-complying imported commodity to be treated in a manner approved by the CFIA. Any costs incurred are the responsibility of the importer.
CFIA approved methods of disposal are defined in appendix 1.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Approved Disposal Methods
CFIA may permit the movement of non-compliant firewood to be disposed of or treated (if applicable) in the following ways:
- Deep burial to a minimum depth of 2 metres with immediate soil coverage.
- Chipping to produce wood by-products such as wood dust, wood mulch or wood fuel. Raw wood by-products must undergo either a sanitation process (steam, heat, compost) to render them free of potential regulated pests or to be contained and used for secondary processes.
- Secondary processing to produce wood by-products such as paper finish mulch, recycled fibre board, oriented strand board.
- Other methods as approved by the CFIA.
Certificate of Origin / Certificat d'Origine
Firewood Import / Importation de bois de chauffage
To: The Canadian Food Inspection Agency
À : Agence Canadienne d'Inspection des Aliments
The accompanying shipment of firewood as described below are products of the United States, produced/harvested in the county of in the State of .
L'envoi du bois chauffage décrit ci-après renferme des produits des États-unis, produits/récoltés dans le comté de dans l'État de .
Canadian importer's name/Nom de l'importateur canadien :
Importer's address/Adresse de l'importateur :
Species of Firewood/Espèce de bois de chauffage:
Common Name of firewood/Nom commun du bois de chauffage:
Signature of person in possession/care or control of the product/
Signature de la personne qui possède, a la garde ou contrôle le produit
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