D-13-03: Phytosanitary Import Requirements to Prevent the Introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European Grapevine Moth
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Effective date: January 2, 2018
This directive provides the phytosanitary import requirements for fresh fruits and plants for planting to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth, into Canada.
The following changes were made as part of this revision:
- Following the eradication of L. botrana in the United States, this country has been removed from the list of regulated countries in Annex 2.
- The following taxa, both fruits and plants, have been removed from the list of regulated articles in Annex 1 as they have been re-evaluated as posing a relatively low risk for the introduction of L. botrana into Canada: Actinidia spp. (kiwi), Berberis vulgaris (European barberry), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujube (Chinese date).
- Cut plant material (e.g. for consumption or decorative purposes) and underground propagative plant parts (e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes) of regulated host taxa are now exempt from requirements for L. botrana.
- For plants for planting, the requirement for a pest-free area, systems approach or fumigation has been replaced with a requirement for an additional declaration stating the plants have been inspected and found free from flowers, fruits and L. botrana. These measures are considered sufficient to mitigate the risk of L. botrana being introduced through this pathway, based on a review of the scientific literature.
- For fresh fruit, the wording of the additional declarations for pest-free areas and systems approaches has been modified.
- The fumigation schedules for fresh fruit have been moved from the appendices of this directive to a stand-alone webpage referenced in the directive. The fumigation schedules for fresh blueberries and grapes have been modified and equivalent schedules in the United States Department of Agriculture Treatment Manual have been noted.
- Various editorial changes have been made to improve the clarity of the text.
This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-13-03.
Table of contents
- 1.0 Legislative authority
- 2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
- 3.0 Introduction
- 4.0 Scope
- 5.0 Import requirements
- 6.0 Non-compliance
- 7.0 References
- Annex 1: Plant taxa regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
- Annex 2: Countries regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) under directive D-13-03
- Appendix 1: Countries and articles for which the CFIA has accepted a systems approach for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
- Appendix 2: Countries for which the CFIA has recognized a pest-free area for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
1.0 Legislative authority
Plant Protection Act (S.C. 1990, c. 22)
Plant Protection Regulations (SOR/95-212)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)
2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
Definitions of terms used in the present document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth, is a significant pest of grapes and reduces both grape yields and quality. The larvae feed directly on both flowers and fruit; fruit feeding increases susceptibility to fruit rots caused by fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Botrytis cinerea.
Lobesia botrana is a polyphagous insect with a wide range of alternate hosts, allowing it to survive during periods when grapes are not available for feeding.
Lobesia botrana can be transported over long distances, most commonly as eggs or larvae within fruits, fruit clusters and flowers of host plants. This insect is difficult to detect by visual inspection.
Lobesia botrana is a quarantine pest for Canada and several other countries, including the United States and Mexico. After being found in California in 2009, L. botrana was eradicated from the United States in 2016. Lobesia botrana is present in most of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, as well as in Argentina, Chile and Kenya.
Lobesia botrana could survive in Canada's major grape-growing areas (southern Ontario and parts of British Columbia) where it is anticipated that it would have a significant negative impact on grape production. If this insect were to establish in Canada, it could also impact Canada's ability to export L. botrana host articles to countries where L. botrana is a regulated pest.
4.1 Regulated pests
Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller)
Common names: European grapevine moth, grape berry moth, grape fruit moth, vine moth, grape vine moth, Mediterranean vine moth, grape leaf-roller, grape moth.
4.2 Regulated articles
For the taxa listed in Annex 1:
- Fresh fruit
- Plants intended for planting that include above-ground parts (e.g. whole plants, unrooted cuttings)
4.3 Articles exempted from requirements under this directive
Note: The following articles are exempt only from the requirements in this directive and may be subject to other requirements, including prohibitions. Please consult the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.
- Underground plant parts (e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes)
- In vitro plants.
- Olive fruit (Olea europaea).
- Seeds and nuts of host taxa (e.g. almonds).
- Sprouted seeds of host taxa intended for consumption.
- Cut flowers, leaves and branches, including of the taxa listed in Annex 1, intended for any purpose other than planting/propagation.
- Articles that have been processed in a way that precludes infestation with L. botrana (e.g. sliced, peeled, pureed, cooked, pickled, canned, frozen, dried, roasted, pasteurized). This includes all dried fruit, as well as grape must, grape pomace and wine.
4.4 Regulated areas
Articles from the countries listed in Annex 2 are subject to the requirements in this directive due to the presence of L. botrana. This list may change at any time based on new information and articles imported to Canada must always be free from L. botrana regardless of country of origin.
Regulated articles that are re-exported to Canada via a third country must meet Canada's import requirements for the country of origin.
5.0 Import requirements
5.1 Requirements by type of article
Note: This directive describes the import requirements related to L. botrana. Other phytosanitary requirements, including prohibitions, may also apply. Please consult the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.
Fresh fruit of the following taxa:
One of the following options must be met:
|Plants intended for planting of the taxa listed in Annex 1||
The articles must be free from fruits, flowers and L. botrana (see section 5.5). The phytosanitary certificate must include the following additional declaration:
"The articles were inspected and found free from fruits, flowers and Lobesia botrana."
- Table Note 1
Note: The systems approach requirements for bulk grapes intended for processing may be different from those for table grapes intended for direct consumption.
5.2 Systems approach
Regulated articles may be imported under a CFIA-accepted systems approach that conforms to international guidelines as per ISPM 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management.
The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the exporting country must submit a written description of the systems approach to the CFIA for review to determine whether it meets Canada's import requirements. The CFIA will review the systems approach proposal and communicate the results in writing to the NPPO.
Appendix 1 lists the countries and specific commodities for which the CFIA has accepted a systems approach for L. botrana.
5.3 Pest-free area
The NPPO of a regulated exporting country may determine that certain portions of its territory are free from L. botrana, as per ISPM 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. The NPPO must provide the CFIA with information demonstrating that the ISPM 4 guidelines have been met. The CFIA will review the information provided as per ISPM 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence and will communicate the results in writing to the NPPO.
Appendix 2 lists the countries for which the CFIA has recognized a pest-free area for L. botrana.
The only treatment currently approved by the CFIA for L. botrana is fumigation with methyl bromide as per schedule 2 and 9 through 13 of Treatment schedules for horticulture products.
Note: As a signatory to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Canada is phasing out the use of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit data supporting the efficacy of alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation to the CFIA for review.
5.5 Visual inspection of plants for planting
Visual inspection must verify freedom from fruits, flowers and all life stages of L. botrana.
Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when reaching their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and may be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin and/or re-export of any non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.
7.2 Supporting documents
International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. International Plant Protection Convention, 1996.
International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management. International Plant Protection Convention, 2002.
International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence.International Plant Protection Convention, 2007.
Annex 1: Plant taxa regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
All fresh fruits (except olives) and plants for planting of the following taxa are regulated for Lobesia botrana. For more information, see Section 4.2: Regulated articles and Section 4.3: Articles exempted.
|Scientific name||Common name|
|Clematis vitalba||old man's beard|
|Daphne gnidium||spurge flax|
|Galium mollugo||false baby's breath|
|Hypericum calycinum||great St. John's Wort|
|Ligustrum vulgare||European privet|
|Olea europaea||olive (except olive fruit)|
|Prunus spp.||all species in Prunus genus, including but not limited to: almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, plum, peach and their hybrids|
|Rhus glabra||smooth sumac|
|Ribes spp.||all species in Ribes genus, including but not limited to: currant, gooseberry|
|Rubus caesius||European dewberry|
|Rubus fructicosus||European blackberry|
|Silene vulgaris||bladder campion|
|Trifolium pratense||red clover|
|Urginea maritima||sea squill|
|Vaccinium spp. other than Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium oxycoccos||all species in Vaccinium genus other than cranberry, including but not limited to: blueberry, lingonberry, bilberry, deerberry|
|Vitis spp.||grape, grapevine|
Annex 2: Countries regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) under directive D-13-03
Regulated articles from the countries in the following list are subject to the requirements in directive D-13-03 due to the presence of L. botrana. This list may change at any time based on new information and products imported to Canada must always be free from L. botrana regardless of country of origin.
Note that the articles regulated in D-13-03 may not all be authorized entry into Canada from the countries below. For complete import requirements, including prohibitions, see the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- United Kingdom
Appendix 1: Countries and articles for which the CFIA has accepted a systems approach for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
Please see Section 5.2: Systems approach for information on requesting CFIA acceptance of a systems approach.
|Country||Article (fresh fruit)|
|Chile||All fruits listed in Annex 1 of D-13-03 Table Note 2|
|Egypt||Vitis spp. (grapes)|
|Moldova||Prunus domestica (plums)|
- Table note 2
These systems approaches may not be used for stone fruit other than cherries (Prunus spp. other than P. avium and P. cerasus) when destined to British Columbia.
- Table Note 3
This systems approach may be used for stone fruit other than cherries destined to British Columbia.
Appendix 2: Countries for which the CFIA has recognized a pest-free area for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
At this time, the CFIA has not recognized any pest-free areas for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth). Please see Section 5.3: Pest-free area for information on requesting CFIA recognition of a pest-free area.
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