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D- 99-07: Policy for Importation from the United States and Domestic Movement of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) susceptible Prunus Propagative Plant Material

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Effective Date: September 9, 2013
(5th Revision)

Subject:

This directive describes the import requirements for Prunus (stone fruit) nursery stock and propagative plant material, including seeds, from the continental United States (U.S.) to Canada. This directive also provides the movement requirements for Prunus nursery stock and other regulated Prunus material within Canada. In addition, restrictions and program parameters within established quarantine areas in Canada are described.

This revision is necessary to outline restrictions and inspection procedures in relation to the propagation and multiplication of PPV susceptible species within the quarantine area, and adds procedures for CFIA sampling within and around the quarantine area. In addition, the list of approved U.S. States with certification programs has been removed from the directive and moved to a separate document which can be accessed via the link in Appendix 3.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (via Regions)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Provincial Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  5. Internet

Introduction

Plum Pox Virus (PPV) is a virus that affects Prunus species such as P. domestica and P. persica, as well as ornamental Prunus varieties such as P. cistena and P. glandulosa. Appendix 2 contains a complete list of susceptible species. Symptoms of the virus may include chlorotic ring spots on leaves and fruit, decrease in fruit yield as well as early fruit drop. There is no treatment for PPV and once a tree has become infected the only way to prevent the spread and destroy the virus is to remove the tree and roots. The two main pathways in which PPV is spread are aphid feeding and propagation or multiplication with infected material. Propagation and multiplication activities include budding and grafting.

PPV was first detected in Canada in the year 2000 in the provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia. Appendix 4 contains a current list of the quarantine area(s) in Canada. There are several strains of PPV that affect different Prunus species; the strain that has been detected in Canada and the United States (U.S.) is PPV – D (Dideron). This strain does not affect species in three Prunus subgenera, namely Cerasus, Padus or Laurocerasus. Appendix 1 contains a complete list of the species in these subgroups. Isolated detections of PPV-W (Winona) and PPV-Rec (Recombinant) have also been found in Canada. However, since the single detection of PPV-W in 2004, the surrounding area has been intensively surveyed with no further detections.

It is important to regulate susceptible material that is imported into Canada as well as material moving domestically in order to prevent any new introductions of PPV into uninfected areas or the introduction of a new strain. As PPV has also been detected in several countries worldwide there are import requirements for nursery stock and propagative material for these countries. Refer to "D-94-35: List of Sources Approved to Export Fruit Tree and Grape Propagative Material to Canada".

Scope

This directive is intended for the use of the Canadian public, CFIA inspection staff and the Canada Border Services Agency in order to prevent the entry and spread of PPV through material of susceptible Prunus species into and within Canada.

References

CFIA, 2000. Plum Pox Potyvirus. Pest Risk Assessment # 99-48. Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, Science Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. (Unpublished)

ISPM No. 4. Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Areas. 1995, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 5. Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms, 2002. FAO. (updated annually)

Krüssman, G. (1978). Hanbuch der Laubgelhölze, Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin et Hamberg. Manual of Cultivated broad-Leaved Trees & Shrubs by Timber Press, Portland, Oregon (1986)

NAPPO, 2004. Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures #18. Guidelines for Phytosanitary Action Following Detection of Plum Pox Virus in NAPPO Member Countries.

This directive supersedes D-99-07 (4th Revision) dated February 27, 2006.

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, contact the National Import Service Centre (NISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit us at our Fees Notice Web Site

1.3 Regulated Pests

Plum Pox Virus – Sharka

1.4 Exempt Commodities

All PPV non-susceptible Prunus species; refer to Appendix 1 for a list of non-susceptible Prunus species. Pollen, fresh fruit for consumption and dead and dried out branches and logs are also exempt from the requirements of this directive.

1.5 Regulated Commodities

All material of PPV-susceptible Prunus species; refer to Appendix 2 for a list of species susceptible to PPV.

Additional import and domestic requirements may exist for regulated and exempt commodities for other pests and will be outlined in different policy directives. Consult the CFIA website for further information, or see the Automated Import Reference System for more details on import requirements.

1.6 Regulated Areas

Continental US and Canada.

Requirements for countries other than the US can be found in directive "D-94-35: List of Sources Approved to Export Fruit Tree and Grape Propagative Material to Canada".

2.0 Import Requirements

Refer to Appendix 5 for import requirements for PPV susceptible and non-susceptible nursery stock, propagative plant material and seed.

3.0 Domestic Movement Requirements

Refer to Appendix 6 for domestic movement requirements for PPV susceptible and non-susceptible nursery stock, propagative plant material and seed.

4.0 Restrictions Within PPV Quarantine Areas

4.1 Propagation and Multiplication Restrictions

All Prunus PPV-susceptible material (Appendix 2) located within established PPV quarantine areas must not be used for the purposes of propagation or multiplication. Restricting propagation and multiplication within established quarantine areas assists in controlling the spread of regulated pests by restricting an activity that constitutes a biological obstacle to the control of a pest.

4.2 Restrictions Governing the Sale of PPV-Susceptible Prunus Material Within a PPV Quarantine Area

All PPV-susceptible plant material, such as trees and shrubs, may be sold within the quarantine area provided that:

5.0 Inspection Procedures

5.1 Propagation and Multiplication Inspections

CFIA inspectors will routinely monitor established PPV quarantine areas to identify locations or individuals who are propagating or multiplying regulated material. Inspections will be based on risk and compliance history of specific locations. Inspectors should inspect properties for activities such as grafting, budding or growing trees from seed.

5.2 Sampling Within and Around Established PPV Quarantine Areas

Once a PPV quarantine area is established, CFIA inspectors will collect samples of select PPV-susceptible species to determine the presence of PPV. Sampling priorities will be determined based on risk. Based on criteria listed with NAPPO RSPM #18, the sample risk categories include, but are not limited to, the following:

All samples collected by the CFIA are to be sent to the Centre for Plant Health, Sidney, B.C. for analysis.

6.0 Non-compliances

6.1 Non-Compliant Imported Material

Shipments must meet all requirements when they reach first point of entry in Canada. Shipments that do not meet requirements or that are found to be infested with quarantine pests may be refused entry and removed from Canada, or disposed of. Infested shipments may be treated prior to disposal. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal.

6.2 Non-compliance with Propagation and Multiplication Restrictions

Individuals who undertake the activity of propagation or multiplication within the quarantine area may be issued a Notice of Prohibition or Restriction of an Activity from the CFIA which would prohibit further propagation or multiplication of plant material. Violations may be subject to penalties as described within the Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act and Regulations.

7.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: List of Prunus Species of the Subgenera Cerasus, Padus and Laurocerasus that are Non-susceptible to the D-strain of PPV

The genus Prunus is in the plant family Rosaceae. The group Prunus can be subdivided into smaller, more closely related groups, which share common characteristics. The D (Dideron) strain of plum pox virus (PPV) found in the US and Canada does not affect species in three subgenera of the genus Prunus, namely subgenus Cerasus, Padus and Laurocerasus. The following classification of these three subgenera is an abbreviation of that provided in the "Manual of Cultivated Broad-leaved Trees & Shrubs" by Gerd Krüssman, 1978, translated by Michael E. Epp, 1986, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Species in the three subgenera listed below may be imported into Canada or moved domestically within Canada. Imported material must meet import requirements as well as be clearly marked to show species (scientific name) or, in the case of interspecific varieties, species of parents (scientific names). For example, the cherry rootstock hybrid Geisela 5 is a cross between P. cerasus and P. canescens (Geisela 5 = P. cerasus × P. canescens).

Subgenus Cerasus includes many of the species commonly called cherries; it has been broken up into several subgroups. Although some of these species are known to be susceptible to cherry strains (PPV-C) of PPV, none are known to be susceptible to other strains, such as PPV-M and PPV-D. In some species, inoculation studies have shown that the virus may be introduced to a plant but replication does not occur and the infection dies out.

Species in this subgroup include:

Subgenus Padus is a small group of ornamental cherry species which are also not susceptible to common strains of PPV.

These species include:

Subgenus Laurocerasus includes the cherry laurels. Like other cherries, none of these has been shown to be susceptible to common strains of plum pox, such as PPV-M or PPV-D.

These species include:

Appendix 2: List of Prunus Species that are Susceptible to the D-strain of PPV

All commercial and ornamental propagative material (including trees, cuttings, budwood, scionwood and rootstocks) of Prunus spp. (other than those listed elsewhere in this directive that are considered non-susceptible), which includes plums, apricots, peaches, almonds, and related species, including but not limited to:

Subgenus Prunus Subgenus Amygdalus Subgenus Lithocerasus
  • P. alleghaniensis
  • P. americana
  • P. angustifolia
  • P. armeniaca
  • P. blireana
  • P. bokhariensis
  • P. brigantina
  • P. cerasifera (includes P. myrobalana and its cultivars)
  • P. cocomilia
  • P. consociiflora
  • P. curdica
  • P. dasycarpa
  • P. domestica
  • P. dunbarii
  • P. gigantea
  • P. gracilis
  • P. gravesii
  • P. gymnodonta
  • P. hortulana
  • P. insititia
  • P. mandshurica
  • P. maritima
  • P. mexicana
  • P. monticola
  • P. mume
  • P. munsoniana
  • P. nigra
  • P. orthosepala
  • P. pseudoarmeniaca
  • P. reverchonii
  • P. salicina
  • P. sibirica
  • P. simonii
  • P. spinosa
  • P. subcordata
  • P. umbellata
  • P. ursina
  • P. ussuriensis
  • P. amygdalo-persica
  • P. arabica
  • P. argentea
  • P. arnoldiana
  • P. baldschuanica
  • P. bucharica
  • P. davidiana
  • P. dulcis
  • P. fasciculata
  • P. fenzliana
  • P. kansuensis
  • P. mira
  • P. mongolica
  • P. pedunculata
  • P. persica
  • P. petunnikowii
  • P. pilosa
  • P. skinneri
  • P. spinosissima
  • P. sweginzowii
  • P. tangutica
  • P. tenella
  • P. triloba
  • P. vavilovii
  • P. webbii
  • P. besseyi
  • P. bifrons
  • P. cistena
  • P. glandulosa
  • P. humilis
  • P. incana
  • P. jacquemontii
  • P. japonica
  • P. microcarpa
  • P. prostrata
  • P. pumila
  • P. tomentosa
  • P. utahensis

Appendix 3 - List of U.S. States with Approved Virus Certification Programs

Please refer to directive "D-94-35: List of Sources Approved to Export Fruit Tree and Grape Propagative Material to Canada

Appendix 4 - List of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) Quarantine Areas in Canada

Please refer to the Plum Pox Virus Infested Places Order for a listing and map of the PPV quarantine areas in Canada

Appendix 5 - Import Requirements for Plum Pox Virus Susceptible and Non-susceptible Material from the Continental United StatesFootnote 1

Note: All susceptible and non-susceptible material, including seed, must come from a U.S. state with an approved virus certification program. For a list of states with an approved virus certification program refer to appendix 3.

Commodity RequirementsFootnote 2
Susceptible

 

Non-susceptible
Nursery Stock and Propagative Plant Material

Permit to Import Requirements
A Permit to Import is required. All nursery stock must originate from mother stock grown under a virus certification program that has been tested for PPV by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or a USDA recognized laboratory and has been found to be negative.

All nursery stock must come from a PPV Pest Free Area (PFA), Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) established and maintained according to Section 3 or Section 4 of NAPPO RSPM #18. The establishment and maintenance of a PFA are based on survey and testing protocols agreed to by Canada and the USDA.

or

All nursery stock was grown within an area of the US that has been declared free of PPV based on official surveys and testing protocols agreed to by the CFIA and the USDA. These surveys are based on the recommendations contained in NAPPO RSPM #18.

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements
A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The origin (state) and botanical name of the nursery stock and/or seed, including genus and species name (or in the case of interspecific hybrid varieties, the species name of the parent plants) must be clearly stated in order to establish its eligibility to enter Canada.

The following additional declaration, referring to the virus certification program of the respective approved state, is required on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"All Prunus material in this consignment has been derived from parent material that has been tested according to recognized and appropriate procedures and produced under conditions that preclude reinfection and is therefore considered to be free of pests regulated by the CFIA."

Exception

PPV-susceptible Prunus Seedling Rootstock from Non-tested Sources

Permit to Import Requirements
A Permit to Import is required. Where approved of by the CFIA, seedling rootstock propagated from seed originating from mother material that has not been virus tested (e.g. cannery seed) is allowed entry into Canada, provided the mother material was grown in a PPV PFA and the seeds were tested for seed-transmissible viruses and found to have a maximum overall level of 5% infection.

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements
A Phytosanitary Certificate is required with the following additional declarations:

"The Prunus scion material in this consignment has been derived from parent material that has been tested according to recognized and appropriate procedures and produced under conditions that preclude infection and is therefore considered to be free of pests regulated by the CFIA."

"The seedling rootstock of the material in this shipment was propagated from seeds originating from a Plum Pox Virus Pest Free Area of the U.S., and has been tested for all other pests as required by the CFIA."

Permit to Import Requirements
A Permit to Import is required. The mother material and nursery stock must have been grown under a CFIA approved virus certification program.

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The origin (state) and botanical name of the nursery stock and/or seed, including genus and species name (or in the case of interspecific hybrid varieties, species name of the parent plants) must be clearly stated order to establish its eligibility to enter Canada.

The following additional declaration, referring to the virus certification program of the respective approved state is required:

"All Prunus material in this consignment has been derived from parent material that has been tested according to recognized and appropriate procedures and produced under conditions that preclude reinfection and is therefore considered to be free of pests regulated by the CFIA."

Seed

Permit to Import Requirements
A Permit to Import is required. Seed must originate from mother material grown under a virus certification program and that has been tested for PPV by the USDA or a USDA recognized laboratory and found negative.

All seed must come from a PPV Pest Free Area (PFA) or Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) established and maintained according to Section 3 or Section 4 of NAPPO RSPM #18. The establishment and maintenance of a PFA are based on survey and testing protocols agreed to by Canada and the USDA.

OR

All seed must originate from mother material that was grown within an area of the US that has been declared free of PPV based on official surveys and testing protocols agreed to by the CFIA and the USDA. These surveys are based on the recommendations contained in NAPPO RSPM #18.

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements
A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The origin (state) and botanical name of the nursery stock and/or seed, including genus and species name (or in the case of interspecific hybrid varieties, the species name of the parent plants) must be clearly stated in order to establish its eligibility to enter Canada.

The following additional declaration, referring to the virus certification program of the respective approved state, is required on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"All Prunus seed in this consignment has been derived from parent material that has been tested according to recognized and appropriate procedures and produced under conditions that preclude reinfection and is therefore considered to be free of pests regulated by the CFIA."

Exception

PPV-susceptible Prunus Seed from Non-tested Sources

Permit to Import
A Permit to Import is required. Where approved of by the CFIA, seed originating from mother material that has not been virus tested (e.g. cannery seed) is allowed entry into Canada, provided the mother material was grown in a PPV PFA and the seeds were tested for seed-transmissible viruses and found to have a maximum overall level of 5% infection

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements
A Phytosanitary Certificate is required with the following additional declaration:

"The seed in this shipment originates from a Plum Pox Virus Pest Free Area of the US and has been tested for all other pests as required by the CFIA."

Permit to Import Requirements
A Permit to Import is required. The mother material and nursery stock must have been grown under a CFIA approved virus certification program.

Phytosanitary Certificate Requirements

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The origin (state) and botanical name of the nursery stock and/or seed, including genus and species name (or in the case of interspecific hybrid varieties, species name of the parent plants) must be clearly stated order to establish its eligibility to enter Canada.

The following additional declaration, referring to the virus certification program of the respective approved state is required:

"All Prunus material in this consignment has been derived from parent material that has been tested according to recognized and appropriate procedures and produced under conditions that preclude reinfection and is therefore considered to be free of pests regulated by the CFIA."

Appendix 6: Domestic Movement Requirements for Plum Pox Virus Susceptible and Non-susceptible Material

Note: Refer to appendix 4 for a list of PPV quarantine area(s) in Canada.

Commodity RequirementsFootnote 3
Susceptible Non-susceptible
Nursery Stock and Propagative Plant Material and Seed

Movement of Material Originating Outside of the PPV Quarantine Area(s)
There are no further requirements or restrictions for the domestic movement of PPV-susceptible Prunus material originating outside of the PPV quarantine area(s) under this directive. Refer to the CFIA website for other Plant Protection requirements.

Movement of Material From the PPV Quarantine Area(s)
As per the PPV Infested Places Order, movement of PPV susceptible Prunus material is prohibited from all established PPV quarantine areas in Canada. All PPV-susceptible material which has been moved into these quarantine areas from other areas of Canada or the US is prohibited from moving out of the area. Additionally, PPV-susceptible Prunus material is prohibited movement between quarantine areas.

Exceptions

Movement of PPV-susceptible Dormant Prunus Plant Material
Dormant PPV-susceptible Prunus nursery stock grown outside of official quarantine areas may be moved into and out of a quarantine area for storage and grading purposes only, providing that:

- A CFIA compliance agreement for the movement of dormant stock has been signed prior to the PPV-susceptible Prunus nursery stock moving into the quarantine area.

- The CFIA has been informed of movement into and given approval for each movement out of the quarantine area by means of a CFIA-issued Movement Certificate.

- All plant identification, isolation and other conditions and restrictions have been followed to the satisfaction of a CFIA inspector.

Movement of PPV-susceptible Greenhouse Grown Prunus Seedlings
Seedlings of PPV-susceptible Prunus originating from individually tested seed-tree stock found negative for PPV will be permitted movement out of a quarantine area providing that:
- A CFIA compliance agreement for the production and movement of seedlings has been signed prior to the production and movement ofseedlings.
- The CFIA has approved the greenhouse in which the seedlings were grown.
- The CFIA has been informed and given approval to each movement out of the quarantine area by means of a CFIA-issued Movement Certificate.
- All other conditions and restrictions have been followed to the satisfaction of a CFIA inspector.

Movement of PPV-susceptible Prunus Seed
Seed of PPV-susceptible Prunus originating from individually tested seed-tree stock found negative for PPV will be permitted movement out of a quarantine area providing that:
- The CFIA has been informed and given approval to each movement out of the quarantine area by means of a CFIA-issued Movement Certificate.
- All other conditions and restrictions have been followed to the satisfaction of a CFIA inspector.

Movement of Material Originating Outside of the PPV Quarantine Area(s)
There are no further requirements or restrictions for the domestic movement of PPV-susceptible Prunus material originating outside of the PPV quarantine area(s) under this directive. Refer to the CFIA website for other Plant Protection requirements.

Movement of Material from the PPV Quarantine Area(s)
Movement of PPV non-susceptible Prunus material, as outlined in Appendix 1 and 2, is permitted from all established PPV quarantine areas in Canada. There are no PPV restrictions for this material. However, there may be other Plant Protection requirements; please refer to the CFIA web site.

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