D- 97-06: Plant Protection Export Certification Program for Grapevine Nursery Stock, Vitis spp.
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Directive D-97-06 is under revision as the program for Vitis spp. plant export certification to the United States is being modernized to incorporate an audit based system rather than the CFIA direct inspection based system that presently exists. Prior to implementation of changes to D-97-06, there will be direct consultation with affected parties of the grapevine production industry. The requirements in the current version of D-97-06 (dated July 4, 1997) will remain in effect until a revised version is posted.
In the present version of the directive, contact information, references to specific organizations within the CFIA, and references to other documents or policies may not be current. This information will be updated at the time of the next revision of this directive. Please contact the CFIA for any questions or further information.
Effective date: July 4, 1997
This directive contains the requirements for meeting the Canadian Plant Protection Export Certification Program (PPECP) for grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp.
Grapevine stock meeting the requirements of PPECP should be eligible for export to most countries. However, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) will only certify the stock for export to a country, when the import requirements of the country are within the testing and production standards contained in this directive. Any exporter wishing to export to a country with import requirements exceeding those contained in this directive, should enquire with the local office of CFIA on how it may meet the requirements of that country.
A Phytosanitary Certificate cannot be provided to a nursery which is no longer eligible for PPECP, if the condition for export to a country is contingent on the nursery meeting the Canadian PPECP requirements.
This directive supersedes D-83-43 dated December 21, 1983, and references to the same subject in any other policy documents issued by the Plant Protection Division of CFIA.
A review has been carried out of the present production and phytosanitary certification practices of grapevine nursery stock both in Canada and abroad. This directive reflects the results of the review.
Grapevine pests (including diseases) may reduce yield, fruit quality, winter hardiness, affect other desirable traits, and lead to plant death. Most countries, including the United States (U.S.), have import restrictions against certain grapevine pests. In order to be eligible for import, grapevine nursery stock must be certified to be free of the pests regulated by these countries. Phytosanitary export certification is based on the grapevine nursery stock meeting acceptable testing and production standards required by the importing country.
This directive contains testing and production requirements for grapevine nursery stock, which when met, will enable CFIA to certify the stock for export to the U.S. and other countries having the same or less stringent phytosanitary requirements than those contained in this directive.
III. Legislative authority
- Plant Protection Act, s.c. 1990, c.22
- Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
- Plant Protection Fees Regulations, SOR/95-218
IV. Regulated commodities
All grapevine, Vitis spp. for propagation
The export of grapevine nursery stock to any country may require phytosanitary certification by CFIA. An exporter should contact the local office of CFIA to determine country's specific export requirements, prior to any export of grapevine nursery stock.
V. Commodities exempt
Enquire with the local office of CFIA for any exemption from phytosanitary requirements of any grapevine products by any country.
VI. Regulated pest(s)
All plants entering the PPECP must be derived from mother plants at the Nuclear level, which are tested or examined in Canada for absence of the pests listed in Appendix 1.
The U.S. import requirements are met by plants produced under the PPECP.
Other countries may have different testing and import requirements than the U.S. A nursery intending to export to countries other than the U.S. should enquire with the local office of CFIA at least three months before planning to export.
VII. Export certification requirements
Any grower intending to participate in the Canadian PPECP must apply to the local office of CFIA for approval at least three (3) months prior to planting. Both the production practice and planting material must meet the requirements described in this section of the directive. An application (see Appendix 4) must be completed and approved before any planting site and planted grapevine is recognized by CFIA as eligible for export certification. The list of approved export growers is kept by the Plant Protection Division in Ottawa, and the Centre for Plant Health (CPH) in Sidney, British Columbia (B.C.).
Any grapevine nursery stock ready for export must be inspected and certified by an inspector (see Section X, Definitions). The export shipment must be accompanied by the appropriate phytosanitary documents required by the importing country.
2. Propagative material
Grapevine nursery stock accepted for PPECP purposes must belong to one of the following certification levels, i.e. Nuclear, Elite, Foundation, or Certified Planting Stock (see Section X, Definitions). They must continue to meet the requirements described in Section VII, 3, 4 and 5.
3. Required production practices
3.1 The Canadian PPECP is based on the propagation of grapevines derived from mother plants tested in Canada at the Nuclear level (i.e. Nuclear Stock) under conditions that prevent disease contamination. These grapevines, when propagated, normally descend through successive certification levels from Nuclear to Elite, to Foundation, and to Certified Planting Stock.
3.1.1 Through pre-arrangement with the local office of the CFIA, vegetatively propagated material directly derived from Nuclear, Elite or Foundation Stock, and produced under environmentally controlled conditions to prevent the introduction of pests, e.g. by tissue culture or rooting and growing of cuttings in the greenhouse, can remain at the same certification level.
3.1.2 Rootstock and varieties can be expanded by vegetative propagation from the vines within the same Nuclear, Elite and Foundation blocks owned by the same nursery, providing that prior approval is obtained from the Plant Protection Division. These new plants would remain at the same certification level, but would be subject to retesting as required, according to the date that the mother block was established.
3.2 Elite blocks shall only be established from Nuclear Stock.
3.3 Foundation blocks shall only be established from Nuclear or Elite Stock.
3.4 Certified Planting blocks shall only be established from Nuclear, Elite or Foundation Stock.
3.5 Certified Planting Stock cannot be used to establish another Certified Planting block. However, upon prior approval by an inspector, unsold Certified Planting Stock may be replanted in a Certified Planting block for one additional year only, and retain its Certified Planting Stock status.
3.6 Elite and Foundation blocks must be isolated from land on which non-certified Vitis spp. have been grown within the last 10 years, non-certified fruit trees within the last two years, and other Rosaceous plants not tested within the last two years for nepoviruses of grapevines known to occur in Canada. Where possible, documentary proof or affidavit should be provided to the inspector assessing the approval status of the block. The minimum buffer zone around these blocks must be either:
3.6.1 eight (8) metres or more, if the buffer zone is clean cultivated or planted with a grass (Gramineae) cover crop, e.g. perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) or Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), or other crop approved by the Plant Protection Division, in which broad-leaved weeds are being actively controlled; or
3.6.2 thirty (30) metres or more, if the buffer zone is planted with grapevines or fruit trees produced under PPECP. The grapevines or fruit trees grown in the buffer zone can be sold as certified material if they meet the certification criteria for the level at which they are sold. For instance, the plants produced in the buffer zone must originate from Nuclear, Elite or Foundation Stock and be surrounded by a four (4) metres buffer zone, if they are to be sold as Certified Planting Stock. Otherwise, the plants grown in the buffer zone must not be sold as certified plants at any level.
3.7 Certified Planting blocks (which produces the lowest level Certified Planting Stock) must be isolated by a buffer zone of at least four (4) metres from land on which non-certified Vitis spp. have been grown within the last ten years, non-certified fruit trees within the last two years, and other Rosaceous plants not tested within the last two years for nepoviruses of grapevines known to occur in Canada.
3.8 When not planted in grapevines, all planting sites at any level of certification must be clean cultivated or planted with an approved cover crop as described in Section VII, 3.6.1) to retain its approved status.
3.9 The areas between the rows in an approved block must be clean cultivated or planted with an approved crop as described in Section VII, 3.6.1).
3.10 Any buffer zone must be clean cultivated or planted with an approved crop as described in Section VII, 3.6.
3.11 Regular spray schedules, or other pest management strategies, according to provincial recommendations, must be followed to control harmful organisms, e.g. aphids, mites, leafhoppers, fungi, etc.
3.12 Each cultivar row must be properly labelled at each end. When more than one cultivar is planted in a row, each cultivar must be clearly labelled at each end of the planting. The minimum distance between different cultivars planted in the same row is one (1) metre.
3.13 Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent the introduction of virus-vectoring nematodes through cultivation or spray equipment.
Before cultivating or spraying grapevines under the PPECP, remove all soil clinging to wheels and other equipment parts that contact the soil. Where washing is not practical, brush away soil and allow exposure to sunlight and drying. Start cultivation with the highest certified level grapevine block and proceed downwards through the lower levels, e.g. Elite to Foundation to Certified Planting to non-certified plants.
3.14 The approved grower must maintain accurate records of:
3.14.1 the origin, reference number and arrival date of the propagative stock received;
3.14.2 field and nursery row planting information indicating the rootstock and the cultivar name and the quantities planted.
A map indicating the location of the certified blocks within the nursery operation must be maintained. Also, the approved grower must maintain and keep for seven (7) years records of sale and distribution of the stock produced under the export certification program. All records must be made available to the inspector on request.
3.15 All propagative stock (buds, cuttings, self-rooted and grafted plants) sold from a certified block of any certified level, must be adequately labelled to identify the block and variety of the grapevine.
4. Approval of planting sites (see Appendix 2)
4.1 Planting sites (blocks) (see Section X, Definitions) for propagative material intended for export certification must be approved by an inspector before use. Application (see Appendix 4) for participation in the grapevine PPECP must be received by the local office of CFIA at least three (3) months before field planting or propagation is planned. This is to allow time for the site and planting stock to be inspected and approved by CFIA.
4.2 In general, planting sites should be located to minimize contamination by soil-borne viruses via virus-vectoring nematodes from surrounding land, through drainage, flooding, irrigation, or other means.
4.3 Prior to approval, all planting sites must be sampled for the presence of Xiphinema and Longidorus nematodes capable of transmitting nepoviruses. The presence of nematodes will not disqualify a planting site, but will serve as an indicator of potential nepovirus contamination. The grower should be aware that the presence of nepovirus vectors increases the risk of nepovirus contamination and the subsequent loss of certification status should the grapevines be found infected by re-testing.
4.4 Type A planting site is eligible as Elite, Foundation or Certified Planting blocks. It is land which has not been used for growing non-certified grapevines within the last ten (10) years, or non-certified fruit trees within the last two (2) years, or other Rosaceous species not tested for the presence of nepoviruses within the last two (2) years.
4.5 Type B planting site is only eligible as Certified Planting blocks. It is land which is still in production of non-certified grapevines or non-certified fruit trees or other Rosaceous species not tested for the presence of nepoviruses, or which, though not in production, has had non-certified grapevines planted within the last ten (10) years, non-certified fruit trees planted within the last two years or other non-tested Rosaceous plants planted within the last two (2) years. Prior to approval as a Certified Planting block, systemic herbicide must be applied to all grapevines, fruit trees and Rosaceous plants in the block, followed by removal of the treated host plants and left fallow for one growing season.
4.6 For any certified blocks where Xiphinema and/or Longidorus nematodes are found prior to planting, grapevines must be sampled and tested prior to leaving the block for sales or other purposes, for the presence of nepoviruses known to occur in Canada (see Appendix 3), at a rate specified by CPH.
4.7 Grapevines in all other approved certified blocks must be sampled and tested for nepoviruses known to occur in Canada (see Appendix 3) at a rate specified by CPH, and at a frequency indicated in Appendix 2.
4.8 All testing for nepoviruses will be done at the nursery's expense.
4.9 The planting site loses its certified block status if tests are positive for any nepoviruses known to occur in Canada. Certified block status can only be regained after corrective action required by the Plant Protection Division, if possible, has been implemented.
4.10 Any analysis of soil samples for nematodes, or unknown bacterial and fungal diseases must be carried out by CFIA's Centre for Plant Quarantine Pests (CPQP) in Nepean, Ontario, or a laboratory approved by the Director of CFIA's Plant Protection Division.
4.11 Any testing for viruses, virus-like diseases, phytoplasmas or presumed phytoplasmas must be carried out by CPH, or a laboratory approved by CFIA's Plant Protection Division.
5. Inspection and testing requirements
5.1 Nuclear, Elite, Foundation and Certified Planting Stock must be inspected by an inspector at least once during each growing season, and at other times as deemed necessary by the inspector.
5.2 Material suspected by an inspector to be infected with a quarantine pest may be ordered tested at the nursery's expense, to ensure that the approved certified block continues to meet PPECP requirements.
6. Loss of certified status
In general, non-compliance of any requirements in this directive will result in the certified status of the nursery being suspended or cancelled, until corrective action has been undertaken.
Any material suspected of being infected with a pest listed in Appendix 1, and its progeny at subsequent certification levels, will cease to be eligible for PPECP until pest freedom can be re-established and confirmed.
The certification status of other plants in the same block may also be suspended unless the pest-free status of the remainder of the planting can be adequately protected by the removal and destruction of the infected plants.
The loss of eligibility also applies when virus vectoring nematodes are found upon sampling, and subsequent test(s) show positive results for nepoviruses known to occur in Canada.
VIII. Phytosanitary certification
1. At the time of shipment, the material must be inspected by an inspector, and must meet the phytosanitary requirements of the importing country.
2. No Phytosanitary Certificate will be issued if any of the requirements in this directive is not met, when the condition for export into a country is contingent on the grapevine meeting the Canadian PPECP requirements.
3. Only Vitis stock derived from a mother plant tested in Canada at the Nuclear level according to Appendix 1, and produced according to the requirements listed in Section VII (or meeting the conditions for exceptions as described in Section 3.1.1 and 3.1.2) are eligible for export as Canadian certified material as defined in this directive.
4. Imported certified plant material may be re-exported to the country of origin provided the material has not been further propagated, the import requirements of that country are met, and the material is grown in Canada under the PPECP requirements of this directive. For re-export of U.S. certified grapevine to the U.S., the following are the guidelines:
4.1 The grapevine nursery stock must originate from a U.S. certified nursery scheme approved by Plant Protection Division for importation into Canada. This applies to material at any level of certification.
4.2 The grapevine nursery stock must be planted in a Canadian block that meets all the requirements of the Canadian Plant Protection Export Certification Program (PPECP), other than that the plant material is not derived from nuclear level plants tested in Canada. The PPECP requirements include the appropriate isolation distance, suitability of the block, documentation, registration with Plant Protection Division, maintenance of a map with the locations of the plantings, etc.
4.3 Any growing requirement in Canada for certified plants to reduce the possibility of pest (or disease) contamination must be equally applied to U.S. certified material for re-export to the U.S.
4.4 The U.S. certified material planted in Canada intended for re-export must be self-rooted, grafted onto other U.S. certified material, or grafted onto Canadian material produced under PPECP at Nuclear, Elite or Foundation Certification level. These material cannot be exported to any other country, unless prior approval is obtained from the country.
4.5 Other than the above, any material further propagated from imported U.S. certified grapevine nursery stock cannot be re-exported to the U.S., nor to any other country.
4.6 If re-exported to the U.S., the origins of the plant components must be indicated on the Phytosanitary Certificate, i.e. of U.S. origin from California, Oregon, Washington, New York, or any other state whose certification program may be approved by Plant Protection Division in the future. This is additional to any other normal U.S. requirements, including the additional declaration that "the requirements of 319.37-5 have been observed". Though the parent stock of the re-exported U.S. material was not indexed in Canada, they were indexed in the U.S. to be eligible for export to Canada. Hence they do satisfy the requirement that the material is free of regulated pests "...based on visual examination and indexing of the parent stock..."
As of May 1, l995, fees are being charged by CFIA for Phytosanitary Certificate, verification of documents and inspection in accordance with the Plant Protection Fees Regulations. Exporters requiring more information on fees may contact any CFIA local offices.
- - The contiguous area planted with virus-tested stock including the required buffer zone.
- Certified Planting Stock
- - Material propagated from Nuclear, Elite or Foundation Stock, grown in accordance with the requirements in this directive.
- Elite Stock
- - Material propagated from Nuclear Stock, grown in accordance with the requirements in this directive.
- Foundation Stock
- - Material propagated from Nuclear or Elite Stock, grown in accordance with the requirements in this directive.
- - A person designated to perform the duties of an inspector under the Plant Protection Act.
- Nuclear Stock
- - Original mother plants tested in Canada by CFIA's Centre for Plant Health (CPH) in Sidney, British Columbia, or a laboratory approved by CFIA, for the viruses of concern. The tests are done according to internationally accepted standards, and the plants are maintained in isolation on facilities approved by CFIA to prevent re-infection. This material must continue to be tested for the viruses of concern as required by the Plant Protection Division.
- - Having been subjected to an official examination, other than visual, to determine the presence or absence of a pest.
- - Virus and virus-like pathogens including phytoplasmas, viroids, and graft-transmissible agents.
- - Tested for the presence of viruses, phytoplasmas or virus-like agents. Plants eligible for the Canadian Plant Protection Export Certification Program (PPECP) consist of individual virus-tested plants or the progeny of virus-tested plants in which quarantine virus and virus-like pathogens known to occur in that crop have not been detected.
XI. List of appendixes
- Appendix 1: Current List of Viruses, Phytoplasmas, Bacteria and Fungi Certified Absent under the Canadian Plant Protection Export Certification Program (PPECP)
- Appendix 2: Requirements for Approved Export Planting Sites for Grapevine Nursery Stock
- Appendix 3: List of Grapevine-infecting Nepoviruses known to occur in Canada
- Appendix 4: Application for Export Designation in the Plant Protection Export Certification Program for Grapevine Nursery Stock, Vitis, spp.
Dr. J.E. Hollebone
Plant Protection Division
Current list of viruses, phytoplasmas, bacteria and fungi certified absent under the Canadian export certification program (PPECP)
a) arabis mosaic nepovirus;
b) artichoke Italian latent nepovirus;
c) grapevine Bulgarian latent nepovirus;
d) grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus;
e) grapevine fanleaf nepovirus;
f) grapevine Tunisian ringspot nepovirus;
g) peach rosette mosaic nepovirus;
h) raspberry ringspot nepovirus;
I) strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus;
j) tobacco ringspot nepovirus;
k) tomato black ring nepovirus;
l) tomato ringspot nepovirus.
2) Graft-transmissable agents
a) grapevine asteroid mosaic agent;
b) grapevine corky bark agent;
c) grapevine enation agent;
d) grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus I;
e) grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus III;
f) grapevine leafroll agent;
g) grapevine vein mosaic agent;
h) Kober stem grooving agent;
I) LN33 stem grooving agent;
j) tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus.
3) Phytoplasmas or presumed Phytoplasmas
a) bois noir;
b) flavescence doree;
c) grapevine yellows;
a) Pierce's disease (Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al.)
b) Xanthomonas ampelina Panagopoulos
a) Charrinia diplodiella (Speg.) Sacc.;
b) Elsinoe ampelina (de Bary) Shear;
c) Peyronelleae glomerata Ciferri;
d) Phomopsis viticola Sacc.;
e) Pseudopeziza tracheiphila ;
g) Rosellinia necatrix (Hart.) Berl.;
h) Septoria melanosa (Vialla and Ravav) Elenk.
|Planting site (block)||Type A||Type B|
|Previous land use: Grapevines||Not within the last 10 years||In production, or planted with grapevine within the last 10 years|
|Previous land use: Fruit trees||Not within the last 2 years||In production, or planted with fruit tree within the last 2 years|
|Previous land use: Other rosaceous spp.||Not within the last 2 years||In production, or planted with rosaceous spp. within the last 2 years|
|Eligible for:||Elite, foundation and certified blocks||Certified blocks|
|Special treatment requirements prior to approval:||None||Systemic herbicide must be applied to all host plants, followed by their removal and left fallow for one growing season|
|Sampling for virus-vectoring nematodes:||Prior to planting, third year after planting and every five years thereafter||Prior to planting, third year after planting and every five years thereafter|
|If virus-vectoring nematodes detected:||Testing grapevines for nepoviruses required upon detection and every five years thereafter||Testing grapevines for nepoviruses required upon detection and every five years thereafter|
|If nepoviruses found:||Removed from the certification scheme until situation corrected||Removed from the certification scheme until situation corrected|
List of grapevine-infecting nepoviruses known to occur in Canada
a) grapevine fanleaf virus and its strains;
b) arabis mosaic virus;
c) tomato ringspot virus;
d) tobacco ringspot virus;
e) peach rosette mosaic virus.
Application for export designation in the plant protection export certification program for grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp.
Name of Nursery:
Owner/Person having the possession, care or control of the nursery
Telephone No.: Fax No.:
Conditions for exporting grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp. under the Plant Protection Export Certification Program for grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp.:
1. Any nursery intending to participate in the Canadian PPECP must apply to CFIA for approval at least three months prior planting.
2. Only grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp., derived from a mother plant tested in Canada at the Nuclear level and produced according to the PPECP requirements are eligible for export as Canadian certified material.
3. Any participating nursery must inform CFIA of the past history of the planting sites.
4. Regular spray schedules, or other pest management strategies, according to provincial recommendations, must be followed to control harmful organisms.
5. Records, as described in the PPECP, must be maintained at the approved nursery. A map indicating the location of the certified blocks within the nursery must be maintained. Records of sale and distribution of the stock produced under the PPECP must be maintained and kept for seven (7) years. All records must be made available to the CFIA inspector on request.
6. Any grapevine nursery stock ready for export must be inspected and certified by a CFIA inspector.
I, the owner/person in possession, care, or control of the above named nursery have read and understood all the conditions and obligations stated herein by which I may export grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp., in accordance with the Plant Protection Export Certification Program.
Further, I am and shall be responsible for and shall indemnify and save harmless Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, including the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Her Officers, Servants, Employees, Successors and Assigns, from and against all manners of actions, causes of action, claims, demands, loss, costs, damages, actions or other proceedings by whomsoever made, sustained, brought or prosecuted in any manner based upon, caused by, arising out of, attributable to or with respect to any failure, inadvertent or otherwise, by act or omission, to fully comply with the said conditions and requirements.
Dated , 199 at , Province of
Recommended for participation in the Plant Protection Export Certification Program for grapevine nursery stock, Vitis spp.:
Date Canadian Food Inspection Agency
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