Weed Seed: Linaria genistifolia (Broomleaf toadflax)
Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.
Canadian: Absent from Canada (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1).
Worldwide: Native to central and eastern Europe and temperate Asia (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). Introduced in France, Germany, Norway, and the United States, where it is present in Oregon, Minnesota, and some of the northeastern states (CABI 2016Footnote 3).
Duration of life cycle
Seed or fruit type
- Seed length: 0.6 - 0.8 mm
- Seed width: 0.4 - 0.5 mm
- Seed blocky, often with one tapered end
- Seed covered in ridges that form a wavy-wrinkled pattern
- Seed black with a bluish or silver sheen, immature seeds are greyish
- The seed edges are reticulated and winged, approximately 0.2 mm wide
Habitat and Crop Association
Pastures, roads and disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003Footnote 4).
Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)
- Dalmatian toadflax seeds are a similar size, blackish colour, rough surface and sharp winged edges as broomleaf toadflax.
- The shape tends to be more blocky without one tapered end and the winged edges do not have a strong microscopic pattern compared to broomleaf toadflax.
Striped toadflax (Linaria repens)
- Striped toadflax seeds are a similar size, dark colour and rough surface as broomleaf toadflax.
- Striped toadflax seeds lack a winged edge and have a dull brownish surface compared to broomleaf toadflax.
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