Weed Seed: Linaria repens (Striped toadflax)
Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.
Canadian: Occurs in NB, NL, NS (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1)
Worldwide: Native to Europe and introduced in North America (Hanf 1983Footnote 2). In the United States, it is present in the northeast (USDA-NRCS 2016Footnote 3).
Duration of life cycle
Seed or fruit type
- Seed length: 1.3 - 2.0 mm
- Seed width: 1.0 - 1.3 mm
- Blocky, oval-shaped seed with rounded edges
- Seed covered in ridges that form a wavy-wrinkled pattern
- Seed dull brownish-black, immature seeds are greyish
- The seed edges are granular.
Habitat and Crop Association
Cultivated fields, old fields, pastures, thickets, roadsides, railway lines and disturbed areas (Hanf 1983Footnote 2, Darbyshire 2003Footnote 4).
Broomleaf toadflax (Linaria genistifolia)
- Broomleaf toadflax seeds are a similar size, dark colour and rough surface as striped toadflax.
- Broomleaf toadflax seeds are shiny black, have one tapered end and sharp winged edges compared to striped toadflax.
Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)
- Dalmatian toadflax seeds are a similar size, blackish colour and rough surface as striped toadflax.
- Dalmatian toadflax seeds are shiny black, straight-edged blocky and have sharp winged edges compared to striped toadflax.
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